The Craft of Writing

Here you can find articles on the craft of writing. If you have some to contribute, we’d love a chance to include them.

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The Complete Guide to Fantasy Worldbuilding by Richie Billing


This has been a never-ending source of irritation to me as a reader.
I’ve alluded to it many times here a Fred Central, but have never dedicated an article specifically to back cover blurbs. It’s time I did so.
To be blunt, the back cover blurb is a marketing tool.
The blurb is like the cover. The cover is the first thing to attract the potential reader to your book. If you have a crappy cover, the reader is more than likely to skip your book to something more aesthetically pleasing. It’s a known fact that there are a few rebellious souls out there that seek out crappy covers, “juss cuz,” but don’t bet the bank on that and expect to have enough sales to afford a Starbucks coffee at the end of the quarter.
After the cover comes some kind of verbiage about the story. What’s going on between the pages? What’s the subject of your masterpiece? Why should anyone read it? This is where you need to entice them to open the cover and explore further. This is where you have to grab them and make them want more.
For some authors, the back cover blurb is the most difficult part of the book to write. Others have said it’s the synopsis, while some have stated it’s the pitch letter. For me, while back in the day, I found the synopsis the most challenging, nowadays, I don’t find any of them all that bad. However, if I had to pick one, I’d still say the most labor intensive is the synopsis. What does that say about the back cover blurb?
To me, it’s not all that hard.
It has to be catchy, but simple. It’s a synopsis without giving away the big Kahuna. It’s a lure to entice the potential reader to buy your book. It’s a quick and dirty few lines that you should know off the top of your head already. You just have to put these words down into something intelligible and honest.
I don’t like to lie to my readers.
There’s nothing that irritates me more than picking up a book that looks interesting. While the covers have some sway, I’m not one that pays all that much attention unless the cover is super amateurish. On the other hand, if I’m going to read this book, I usually just take a glance at the cover and go right to the back blurb. That gives me some idea of what’s inside. I have other criteria which I’ve gone into plenty of times before, but the back blurb is important. What it says is what I expect to see when I read the book.
I expect a certain amount of hyperbole. After all, it IS a marketing tool. However, I expect that blurb to actually be ABOUT the story.
Too often, the blurb is not even (or barely) related to the story between the covers.
If you expect the marketing department at your publisher to take over these mundane tasks, think again! While they may very well do the cover and give you minimal input in the matter, one of the author tasks during the editing phase is to write the back cover blurb. Some marketing genius at the publishing house doesn’t do it. First off, they’re not going to read the book and dream this up. It’s up to you. Second. You’ll be lucky if the artist who does your cover even scans the story to get an idea of the book before they come up with the cover!
Now, if you’re self-published, all that’s out the window anyway. You do it all, so there you go.
Often, the back cover blurb has elements of your pitch letter in it. Therefore, what you used to attract your agent you can use to attract your readers as well. Now, if it’s the second or more book of a series, or if you’re self-published, all bets are off. Then again, you’re still trying to attract people. Therefore, do yourself a favor and at least attract them with the truth.
Ease up on the hyperbole if your blurb strays too far from the reality of the actual story!
Jane always wanted to be an artist, but when she enrolled in the Chroma Institute, she had no idea what she was in for.
Soon, her life turned upside down when killing started. If she wasn’t careful, she wouldn’t make it to graduation.
Sounds like a great thriller about Jane and her horrible time at the Chroma Institute. The problem is that the story is about Alexa and Jane dies in the first scene. Also, it’s a romance and Jane is the only one that dies.
While I changed the names and plot to protect the guilty, what I described is from a real blurb of a different book, different genre but the same thing, false advertising.
The Amazon reviews reflected it as well. One and a half stars overall of something like fifty reviews.
This was an exaggerated example, but there are plenty that are much more subtle but might as well be just as bad.
The truth with just a hint of what’s to come.
Given that I made that one above up out to illustrate a real one, let’s use it as the example again.
Jane always wanted to be an artist, but when she enrolled in the Chroma Institute, she had no idea what she was in for.
Soon, her life turned upside down when killing started. If she wasn’t careful, she wouldn’t make it to graduation.
Say, the protagonist really is Jane and she wants to be an artist. She enrolls in the Chroma Institute, which is in an old Victorian mansion up on a hill in San Francisco.
This is a murder mystery, a women-in-jeopardy thriller. Jane is single, after coming off a messy relationship with someone. She’s attracted to a tall dark stranger who’s a teacher/student at the institute. Bla bla bla. Mayhem ensues.
Now that’s staying true to the blurb.
The blurb is your marketing tool. It should ring of truth, not mislead your reader.
It needs to be catchy without going off the rails.
Don’t anger your readers or alienate them.
Your reviews will reflect that. I know I certainly let them know!
Happy writing!


Writers can sometimes be focused. That means we tend to stick to one genre, or one subject. Western writers tend to stick with westerns, while fantasy writers stick with fantasy. Non-fiction writers don’t even consider fiction, so on and so forth.
However, nothing is an absolute.
It’s natural for a writer to find a niche and stick with what they’re good at. On the other hand, there’s nothing wrong with branching out and trying something different. Most writers I know, at least the prolific ones, write in multiple genres.
Some will call this the more artistic name for it, and that’ll be “the muse.”
For other’s, there’s the mercenary approach. Instead of muse, it’s about money and that’s what they write for regardless of how they feel. Sometimes they’re given assignments to write this or that. It doesn’t matter to them. They write whatever the client wants. In a way, it’s like technical writing, but what I’m talking about here specifically is fiction writing. I mention this because I know a few of these writers that have a specialty genre, but they go where the money is. If someone asks them to write something in a particular genre, they do it because they’re trying to make a living. That’s their motivation. There is, of course, some artistic motivation mixed in because they obviously love what they do, but their prime motivation is to make a living at writing, so anything artistic takes second billing to making money.
The majority of writers I know get their motivation from their feelings and inspiration (muse for lack of a better term). If they get an urge to write something specific, they go for it.
That’s me. I have specific interests in multiple genres, so I take turns writing in each one, depending on which one rocks my boat at the moment.
For some, a big stumbling block is how to switch gears from one genre to the next. Hurdles such as using different pen names, web sites, marketing strategies, appealing to different audiences can make your job a lot more complex once you’ve completed your manuscripts.
Since I’ve written in multiple genres, I can only speak for myself. I’ve consulted with others who have also done so, with mixed results.
#1 I’ve decided to go with my real name for everything.
#2 I use a single web site with tabs for each genre.
#3 I use multiple Facebook pages for each book series.
#4 I’ve researched as best I can each audience for the genre and adjusted my publicity to that crowd.
You can make it as easy or as complex as you want. I decided to keep things simple and I can tell you, I’m a lot happier for it. Like I alluded to above, I’ve consulted with multiple authors that have written in multiple genres and seen what grief and successes they’ve had using different techniques. From their experience, I decided that for me, simple was the best.
It may very well be different for you.
My best advice to you is:
#1 First off, don’t try to put too many pans in the fire. Finish one book before you start on the next one.
#2 Get to know each genre you write in, so you know at least a little on how to market it (and maybe how to write it as well – maybe you’re actually writing something else without realizing it).
#3 Decide how you want to market it. Once you do, stick with it.
#4 Have fun.
Happy writing!


I originally posted this article in 2014, right after our Las Vegas Writer’s Conference that year. After receiving the draft cover for my latest book, Spanish Gold, plus seeing a few posts on my Facebook forums about covers and blurbs, I thought it would be a good time to resurrect this post and update it. Plus, it fits right in with my recent article on blurbs.
One of the things we talked about at the 2014 writer’s conference was book covers. My section on The Cover -Eye Of The Beholder discussed that a bit in my last post (Conference Aftermath – What I Learned), but I thought this would be a good time to talk a bit more in detail
Whether your book is a tangible item or electronic, it’s going to have more than a plain brown wrapper (reminds me of how they supposedly used to ship porn). I’ve seen books in a plain brown wrapper as a marketing gimmick for real. Have no idea what these books were, or if they sold. Since I used the plural with that, you can see that it wasn’t a unique idea.
A hard fact that seems to be borne out by many market researchers is that great covers help sell books, while sucky ones can kill book sales. I must say I have a big issue with that for one simple reason:
                                                                                                                                                Beauty is in the eye of the beholder.
Let’s take the analogy to another favorite of mine, music. I’ve always been and still am convinced that any old schmuck can go into a recording studio, fart in a paper bag, and it could be a big hit.
Beauty is in the eye (or ear) of the beholder. That’s just as true with art as it is with music.
Back in the day, I used to buy albums by unknown bands based on the album cover. It was usually photos of the band with some kind of background. Once in a while, there’d be some kind of artwork. What I looked for were either the ugliest, or the freakiest looking musicians, with the longest hair, and bought the album based on that. Looking back on some of those album covers today, the “artwork” would be considered pedestrian, but I still love those albums. I rarely caught a dud. On the other hand, they were still a form of art, just not paintings, per-se. Your book cover doesn’t have to be a painting either, but I digress.
Over the years, very few albums impressed me with their artwork in the artistic sense. Certain albums had great visual appeal, but I didn’t really care for the music. Some of the best artwork was from an African band called Osibisa. Their first and second albums, with these flying elephants were fantastic. Their music was meh, okay “world music,” but not my usual style. The band Yes had some great artwork, but I couldn’t stand singer Jon Anderson’s voice, and he ruined some otherwise great music. At least the artwork looked great. Eye and ear of the beholder.
On the other hand, one of my top ten albums of all time was Hard Attack, by a New Yawk hard rock band called Dust. Their artwork was done by none other than Frank Franzetta. That album cover is wow! This was about a decade before that became the standard artwork for Molly Hatchet.
We used to see a band in Madrid, Spain at a local club. This band was called Greenslade. David Greenslade used to be the keyboard player in a jazz rock band I loved called Collosseum. His albums had great artwork. In fact, my wife painted their first album cover and it’s still hanging on the wall in our living room. In this case, the music matched the album covers, at least for me.
Whenever I look through my album collection, I can get just as much of a thrill with the album covers as the music because I can tie the two together. I’ve never been able to do that quite the same way with books. I cannot always visualize story details with book covers.
Very few books have impressed me with their artwork except certain series. The Doc Savage series had a look to them. The Hardy Boys and Nancy Drew series were the same. Then there was the Andre Norton series writing as Andrew North. They had a great pulpy atmosphere to them. Otherwise, the look of a book had and has very little lasting impression except in a more utilitarian way. It’s an initial attraction on the shelf for a few seconds, but once I get past that, it’s just art with writing all over it. In fact, some of my favorite covers are more technical books like several of my favorite books on telescope making, or analog synthesizers. The “artwork” is letters and a few modest graphics. However, I’m able to correlate very fond memories to those familiar words and graphics.
There are many great fictional stories I have loved over the decades since I started reading. Lots of favorites used to weigh down my bookshelves. Yet when I finally had to let them go, I received a nasty surprise when I eventually found some of them reissued. Yeah… have you ever noticed that most reissues always have a different cover? It’s like either the publisher or the author never liked the original cover and “wanted to do it right” the next time, or they wanted to try and reissue, rebrand and make it seem like a different book. I don’t know for sure.
You, or everybody else may go totally Bozo over cover art and more power to you. I’ll say this. Something ugly or just functional isn’t going to do you any favors!
On the other hand, who is to say what’s ugly? Eye of the beholder…
You don’t have to use an intricate or artsy fartsy high-dollar cover that’s going to break your bank, if you’re in charge of that. If it’s the publisher, they’ll be footing the bill. However, if you have a say, let’s hope you can steer them a bit from something ugly. Of course, a big publisher has marketing wizzes that should know better than to defeat the whole purpose of putting the book on the shelf. If you’re a self-publisher, the onus is on you.
The key is, it’s up to you to determine what’s good or bad, if you have a choice!
The one thing I’ve seen proven over and over again, since I wrote this in 2014, is that an amateurish cover screams self-published. This is the universal caveat.
Nothing will kill book sales more than screaming self-published with a crappy cover. Using cartoonish or amateurish graphics on your cover and expecting people to see the same quality writing inside are just not going to happen. While the story and writing may be fantastic, if you scream amateur with the outside, when people get that initial glance as the first judgment, it places an immediate roadblock in front of your book before you even get out the gate.
While I have a big issue with eye of the beholder, as I said at the beginning of this article, what’s almost universal is that the majority of people can spot amateurish artwork right off. They may have differing opinions on different graphics, different artwork and colors, subjects or whatever, but when it comes to amateurish, it’s way too easy to spot. Cheap is cheap. That’s different from art. I shouldn’t have to explain that.
A few tips.
1. Make sure your cover art fits your genre.
2. Make sure it stands out but isn’t too gaudy.
3. Make sure it doesn’t look like it was drawn or painted by a third grader.
4. If you have it in a galley proof, put it on a shelf and walk by. See if you notice it, and what it looks like next to others.
5. Make sure the artwork fits with what’s between the pages (see #1).
6. Finally, balance is best (goes with #2). Just the right amount of flare and simplicity so you stand out but not slap everyone in the face. You want to stand out, not annoy them!
Until next time, happy writing!


I originally posted this story in 2018 under the title Short Story Ideas. What prompted this redux was that many of us are sitting at home in isolation during this current pandemic, with either a lot on our minds, like unemployment, or well…trying to come up with something to keep us occupied. To keep from going crazy, maybe all these crazy ideas might be popping up that need some kind of an outlet.
As a writer, not all of them can end up novels. Why not save some of them for short stories? After all, tis the season of the short story contests, isn’t it? Well, maybe not. I’m not exactly a big fan of contests, but I AM a big fan of short stories. Therefor, when the muse strikes, I go for it. Using that same impetus, why can’t you save some of your muse for those little ideas?
Maybe, just maybe one day, if you don’t submit these little snippets to a contest or anthology, you can expand one or two into a full-length novel.
To go along with my last article (at the time I originally wrote this), Remembering Those Ideas (2018), how about when you’re brewing several short story ideas?
Dorlon, one of my buds that used to attend our weekly writer’s group meetings (when we physically attended them) and I used to get there early most Mondays and often discussed writing and stories. He wrote a lot of short stories, a lot more than I do. We talked about inspiration and writing them all down, saving up the ideas, so on and so forth.
Maybe he still doesn’t write near enough stories for what he wants, given his inspiration and the time he spends on it. I haven’t seen him in a long time now, so I don’t know, but maybe he’s caught up?
As for me, I generally don’t think about it in such terms. My process is a bit slower.
Sometimes I can go months without a specific idea. I may be too busy with my current novel, astronomy project (which is now discontinued), editing something for a friend, a proof read for my editor, or one of the other various projects I take on. Then, the muse will hit out of the blue.
What to do?
I quite often stop everything else, then write the draft on the spot.
Other times, I form the idea, ponder it for a few days, maybe a week or two, then, I write the draft in one session.
A short story, to me is 4K words or thereabouts. If I ramble a bit, it may creep into 5K, in need of trimming. Now you have the basic parameters. They can be a bit shorter, if the story warrants.
With the quarantine, that hasn’t really changed much for me because I still work. I have a mission essential job. The difference is that we don’t go anywhere on the weekends, travel, etc. So I have more free time. Same for the weekdays. So far, it’s all been spent working on book three of the Meleena fantasy series and doing edits on the second Gold series story, Spanish Gold. I have not written a new short story yet.
The funny thing is that I have not seen a lot of discussion on short stories on the Facebook forums. Not as much as I’d have expected given our current situation.
There are occasions when I get a nugget of inspiration and I’m not ready to write. I don’t have the muse. I have an idea, but no motivation, or no set plan. The idea isn’t fully formed, the desire isn’t ready to bloom. The story will sit in the back of my mind and linger until I’m ready.
I have one such story that’s been coalescing since April 2015. It’s personal and will not see the light of day until I’m ready. The problem is forgetting details and not getting some of them right. On the other hand, I have to do the story justice. This is a case where I’ve taken some notes but some is memory as well. Since I originally wrote this article in 2018, this same story is STILL brewing and is STILL not written yet, all of five years later.
There’s another story where I’ve been playing around with the idea for a while, but that one’s been dodging in an out of my mind for some time. I wasn’t sure how I wanted to approach it. Since it wasn’t fully formed, I wasn’t ready to commit. Still, I did have an A and a B and a few months ago…well, maybe a year now, I wrote almost 1000 words. I had the title right off. In fact, that was the first thing I came up with. Then A and B. I just don’t feel the rest of it yet. Other things have priority. Until I feel the rest between word 1001 and the end, it’s going to sit. I’m also going to pare it down some because I have a feeling it’s going to go over my standard 4K mark.
This story as in the first one I haven’t started yet do NOT fit my normal pattern.
Hey, nothing is black and white in this world.
I have a few shorts that are done and either rejected submissions to my writer’s group anthology or read to my writer’s group, critiqued but not entirely revised.
Each of them could be tweaked, fixed, re-written, resubmitted, whatever.
Do I even want to?
Do I agree with the critiques? Do I want to change them or do I think the critics missed the point?
These are things to ponder if I ever want to move those stories along as well.
There are even a few drafts I’ve blurted out in a nugget of inspiration when the muse hit. Then I set them aside only to languish, forgotten for the moment. Not many, granted, but one or two.
One day, I’ll pull these nuggets out and see what I can do with them.
As of this writing, they still languish on my computer. I ran across one a while back looking for something else. I was pleasantly surprised!
I’ve written so many short stories, had enough published, that I don’t live and breathe every word and dangle my life’s breath on their publication.
How do you handle that?
Do you write for the pure pleasure, like I do, or is it something else?
What’s your process? Is it your entire thing or a side aspect of your novel writing, poetry, or whatever else you do?
What I’ve described may or may not be similar to what you do or have done. I hope it gives you some insight and helps you see from another perspective.
During this time of isolation, whether mandatory or self-imposed, you’re bound to have time to contemplate your navel. Will you have time for inspiration? Will it (hopefully) be stories other than pandemic-related? I have a feeling the market will soon to be flooded with that! Are you so overwhelmed with worry about employment, sickness, isolation, everything that you cannot get inspired? I sincerely hope things are not that bad for you. I hope you can use some of this time to veer off into the world of your imagination and gift us all with some wonderful stories.
Happy writing!


You’d think after 495 articles, I’d have addressed rejection, but alas, I never have. I’ve discussed criticism multiple times, which in turn includes rejection, but never rejection specifically.
You might also note the number of articles now says 495, which may be different from what I originally posted some time back being in the 300+ range. As it turns out, the last time I counted, I was referring to the wrong directory! Let’s just say, I have backups to backups, and well…I counted the wrong place. This surprised me because this time, when I went to update my 300+ number I was surprised at the jump and did a double take. Then I followed the clues to figure out why.
Now, on to rejection.
Last weekend, I was purging files and came across a file drawer filled with stuff I need to let go of. Guess what it was? Rejections. I have sample chapters, complete (and now since published) short stories, manuscripts, plus lots and lots of rejection letters. I didn’t take the time to re-read them all. I already knew what most of them said. “While we found your idea intriguing, your story is just a the right fit for our agency at this time. Keep writing and trying…bla bla bla.”
Now, let’s jump to a few days later. I’d submitted a short story for my writer’s group anthology. I do every year. The chances are that since it was fiction, they’d hate it. Usually, when I write a non-fiction piece, this same outside group (to keep things neutral, the group sends all entries to an agency in another state) seems to like my stuff. However, whenever I write a fiction piece, they hate it. As predicted, they hated it. I got my 691st rejection (or thereabouts).
Now that I’m a “world famous” “best-selling” author (LOL), who’s traditionally published, small press notwithstanding, even I still get rejected. It happens to the best of us, right?
Tongue in cheek aside, just because I’m now published doesn’t mean anything has changed. Lightning in a bottle finally happened for me through persistence and never giving up. However, writing new stuff, or writing off-the-wall stuff is still a tough sell. Even writing more conventional stuff is no guarantee. In my case, when I stick to personal, or non-fiction stories, I’ve found my magic with my writer’s group. Fiction? I guess I need to save those up for another venue if I ever bother. The thing is that I have a fair amount of short fiction stories, as I alluded to in my recent short story article, that just languish on my hard drive because I’m not all that interested in entering contests. Not my thing.
Don’t get me wrong. I’ve had plenty of fictional short stories published. I have no urgent craving I need satisfied in that regard. I submit to my writer’s group anthology every year for a hoot. So…
Did this rejection discourage me, or does it keep me up at night?
Uh, after 690 previous rejections? I’m afraid it wasn’t something that I dwelled on. I read the critique and while they had their points, some of which I might fix, it’s not likely I’ll change too much. One day, I may resubmit it to a different, more receptive market. This particular story was more sarcasm, than anything, and they just didn’t get it. That’s okay. I’m too busy working on my other stuff. Someone else might love it, as was evident with about half the crowd at my writer’s group, who did. About what I expected.
When you’re starting out, rejection stings a lot more. To me, the rejections were not unexpected at the beginning because I KNEW I was just starting out. I was ready to develop a tough skin. Maybe it was from being a musician and playing in dive bars for so many years that I was ready to be rejected right off. Plus, to be truthful, my stuff sucked before I knew what I was doing.
Some of you jump through untold hoops to get your stuff ready for submission, figuring once you submit, you’re poisoning the well if you submit crap and they get to remembering your name. Uh, I hate to tell you this, but that’s highly unlikely. These agents and publishers receive THOUSANDS of submissions every day, many they never even see directly. You could submit the same manuscript, redone several times and they would never know because the chances are that at best, they may have recalled something similar, but if the writing this time catches their eye because you vastly improved it, it might be the magic moment.
I always get a laugh when someone says they think of quitting because they got ten rejections. Or, they figure they’ll “accept” a dozen before they get published.
Say what?
Or, some agent sends them a really nasty and cruel critique and shatters their hopes and dreams.
You know what I say to that?
It pisses me off. It’s just the interpretation of one jerk. I’d be glad the guy or gal (and there are plenty of nasty gals in the mix as well) never decided to take me on.
I have one instance in particular where I submitted to one of a half dozen contests I did before I swore off contests. My novel, of course, did not win the prize. When I asked for a critique, a few words on why I was rejected, I was shocked to get the most vile and nasty letter of why my book was not selected. That was completely unwarranted. Now, here’s the clincher. The book that won ended up being a complete non-seller and the “contest” went bankrupt. The last time I checked, which was a few years ago, the book is something like ten or eleven million on the best-seller rank on Amazon, with only a dozen reviews. It’s basically out of print. Not exactly gangbusters.
Another time, I submitted in person to a well-known agent at one of our writer’s conferences here in Las Vegas. I never heard a word from him…until two years later. That’s right. Two years later, I got a little note scribbled in an envelope that said, “Not for me.” While he could’ve just not bothered, I was still shocked he DID bother, especially after two years. Oh, one more thing. This agent also wanted an exclusive. In other words, he wanted an exclusive first look before I submitted to anyone else. If anyone EVER tells you that, what are YOU going to do? I think not.
In this passion, you need to get used to it, from the local level to worldwide. As you submit everything from short pieces to full-length work, expect rejection. If you’re lucky enough to get a response, more than a grunt, a no, something generic, an actual word or two, evaluate it and see what good you can get out of it. Take it in stride. It’s never the end of the world.
Plus, don’t expect rejection to go away once you’ve found your stride and are in the mix. It’s certainly never gone away for me. It won’t be the last time either. I have way too many bizarre ideas, plus lightning doesn’t always strike in a bottle!
In closing I’ll just say that not everyone is going to like your stuff. That goes from your readers to agents, publishers and what have you. That should NEVER stop you from keepin’ on keepin’ on. After all, if this is a true passion, you have to write. The muse will come and you’ll put it out there for the fates to do their will.
Happy writing!


The other day, I was trying to figure out a way of rephrasing “forest through the trees” for my latest Meleena’s Adventures fantasy novel. It somehow inspired me to look back to this original article that I posted, the very second one to this web site. The date was June 1, 2011. To let you all know, I DID come up with an alternate way to say forest through the trees.
Anyway…we all get that forest through the trees tunnel vision at times. Whether it be from editing, or maybe overall outlook on writing. Let’s see how I thought back then and how much has changed, given any tweaks I’m going to add along the way.
Why is it that we learn all the “rules” of writing, yet we still cannot write perfectly? That is a question I hear more and more from new writers. No matter how hard we work to edit and perfect a sentence, paragraph, or whole story, we never get it quite right without external input.
The simple reason is that we’re too close to the story. We can’t see the forest through the trees. As tired as that old cliché may be, it’s still the truth. When we’re too close to something, we see what we’re thinking rather than what we wrote on the page. Even professional writers are wise to have a second set of eyes look over their work. The longer the work is, the more chances there are that they’ll get something wrong.
The point is this: don’t beat yourself up for getting something wrong. Whether it be a misplaced comma, a tautology, or a passive phrase, just fix it when someone else points it out. No big deal. No matter how much you write, you’re going to make mistakes. For those of us that have been at this a while, it’s a fact of life. You cannot have an ego when it comes to writing!
As a writer, if there’s any way possible, I highly recommend that you seek out a writer’s group. A writer’s group can be two people or fifty. The key is that these people must be nice! The point of getting together is to help each other out. Helping is giving good advice, opinions that’ll help you and your fellow writers improve their craft. This does not mean demeaning, intimidating, or embarrassing them. I’ve been-there-done-that. It’s ugly, and doesn’t help. The “tough love” argument is just an excuse to be mean.
Some of you have heard my example of the writer’s group from hell. It’s ultimately unproductive and destructive to be part of a group like that, unless you’re a masochist. I have yet to meet a successful agent, editor, or publisher face to face that’s that mean and cruel. I have met a few, mostly through the mail, but they don’t make it far in the business and as the more successful ones know, it’s just plain bad for business. Don’t ever let anyone convince you that being a “tough” critiquer is the way to go. I hate to quote another cliché, but you get more with honey than vinegar.
Critiquing should be objective, not subjective. Critique the work, not the person. Sometimes, it can be tough, especially if you find the material objectionable. If it’s that bad, maybe it’s best just to defer rather than say anything. There was one case where a lady read some material that really got under my skin and I wanted to shout out “bull!” However, I held my tongue. I thought about all the times I read some of my icky bug, a genre where I use a lot of “colorful metaphors,” and a bit of gore and violence. Some members of our group are a bit religious, yet they gave me objective critiques. I kept that in mind as I sucked it up and gave her an honest critique of her writing instead of her content. Luckily, she did not come to too many meetings, so I didn’t have to bite my tongue often. You may run across this in a group, but that’s just part of the deal. Not everyone is going to be a fan of your stories. Critique the work, not the person!
When you read before a group, you’re presenting many new eyes and ears with things you can’t see, no matter how many times you’ve read and re-read your story. Trust me on this. You’re too close to it. Your jaw is going to drop when someone will point out something so obvious. For instance, your villain pops a few shots at the hero with his silenced revolver, misses and steals away. Screech! Halt! Any gun enthusiast will tell you, you can’t silence a revolver!
That was a rather blatant example, but you get my point. Your audience will catch repeated words, run-on sentences, misplaced modifiers, characters names changing from one section to the next, technical errors, the list goes on.
I self-edit these articles each week, and mainly for expediency, they’re all self-edited. I sometimes share them with other publications like Writer’s Tricks Of The Trade. Sometimes months or even years later, when they get published again, I see them in print and cringe at a glaring typo or phrase I messed up because I thought it rather than wrote it. I do my best to edit each article, but don’t be surprised to catch an error here and there. I can’t afford a staff here at Fred Central to keep me straight!
As I alluded to last week (present time 2020), when it comes to rejection, unrealistic expectations are also part of forest through the trees. If you are so focused on getting published and not enough on #1 honing your craft, or #2 why you’re doing this in the first place – the love of writing, you’re going to get lost.
That’s right. Don’t forget the whole point of writing in the first place. If you’re doing this for a hobby, I suggest you take up golf or knitting or something far less stress-inducing. If you don’t love writing, if it isn’t a passion, if it isn’t something you HAVE to do, something you’re going to do whether you get published or endlessly rejected ANYWAY, then find something else to do. If you’re in it just to make money, well…I can show you a bunch of slot machines near my home that probably have better odds for a payoff.
I’m not saying you won’t succeed with time and persistence, but lightning rarely strikes in a bottle. The chances are, it won’t happen to you in an instant, and the only way to be successful is with hard work. If you focus too much on lofty goals, you’re not going to see the forest through the trees. You’re going to miss the pleasure of writing and let the frustration overwhelm why you’re doing this in the first place. You’re going to let the criticisms eat at you and forget the original reason you took pen to paper, or fingers to keyboard.
To write.
Stop. Breathe, and take a look, so you can see the forest through the trees.
Happy writing!


This is a multi-faceted question because I’m not only talking about the format, but the mood and setting.
As a writer, I’m assuming you’re a reader as well. After all, most, if not all of you had to start as readers. Like me, I started with a love of reading long before I ever thought of writing. My first, disastrous stumbles at this passion were a far cry from what I do now and could’ve brought this all to a screeching halt. Through it all, I had a few flashes of brilliance, more or less, and they slowly nurtured my interest into a passion for writing.
None of that would’ve happened if I wasn’t already a voracious reader.
Back when I grew up, we had no choice but to read paper books, whether hard cover Hardy Boys, Nancy Drew or Bobsey Twins, or later on, soft cover trad paperback Edgar Rice Burroughs tomes. Then there were the “wyberry” endless supply of hardbacks, of which everything under the sun was available. Admittedly, I found little use in those because I had no interest in the classics, and frankly, knew close to nothing of genre fiction, being such a young spud.
My parents had the odd paperback lying around the house, but they were often thick (lots of pages) and had tiny (at least for me at the time) print. Plus, the books were usually older and smelled funny. Paperbacks did not age well back then and to tell the truth, still don’t, but nowadays, I’m more inclined to appreciate the smell of an old book.
To avoid a further history lesson and just jump to modern times, we have available nowadays paper books, e-books, audio books, video books, you name it. For the modern reader, there are a host of media available to enjoy your stories.
The question is, if you enjoy reading, how do you choose to partake?
Time is a factor for a lot of people. I know that’s affected book sales, no matter the format. While it takes time to sit down and read a book, some people just don’t have the time, with busy schedules (admittedly not as much a factor during the pandemic, but let’s push that aside for the moment). Then there’s the competition of TV and those with more active lifestyles.
How do you fit in reading time?
Some do it with audiobooks.
I, for one, cannot multitask and listen to an audiobook as well as read. While I can listen to music CDs on my commute to and from work, I also tend to drift off into other worlds. Not only am I paying attention to the road, but the music is taking me places. Listening to Howard Stern interviewing someone, for instance, I miss details of the chat because I’m only catching some of it while something they say makes me think of something else. I don’t stay focused on all of what they’re saying. While I could, I suppose, I just don’t, because I don’t have to. The same with an audio book. I miss half the details because I drift.
If I’m sitting down and reading, I absorb a lot more details over a longer period. It just works better for me. Less distracting.
On the other hand, maybe a more active reader can utilize audiobooks better than I can. Is that what works for you?
How about videobooks? Sitting at a computer or a TV, watching someone read a book to you? Not a very common format, but around. Like sitting on grandma or grandpa’s knee and having them tell you a story. Maybe that works for you.
Some people swear by e-books. They’re cheap once you buy the reader. They’re easy to work with, some say. It’s really easy to save your place. You can usually adjust the font size to make them easier to read. You can store thousands of books on a slab the size of a piece of bread.
They’re the cat’s meow for many people.
On the other hand, they’re not something with any significant tactile feel. They have no new or even old book smell. You can’t peek ahead to the end and “cheat” to see if the hero lives in the end. You can’t get signed copies…well not real ones anyway.
Oh, and let’s not forget those sometimes fantastic vivid color covers that may or may not live up to what’s inside.
There’s nothing like the tactile feel and smell of a good paper book. Holding something of significant weight and texture in your hand is the best. Sure, they cost more, and you have to mark your place, but I much prefer that. I can’t adjust the font size, but I’ve been used to that little annoyance for many decades.
Time and place are critical for reading, no matter what the format. On the go may mean audio. E-books or paper can be anyplace. Video requires the technology and is usually in a fixed place.
For some of you, things have to be quiet like a library. For others, like me, bombs can be going off and I don’t care. I’m usually reading in a mix of situations between early morning when everyone is asleep to the evening when everyone is watching TV, to me reading during commercials, or half reading when I’m only moderately interested in something showing on TV. It’s funny how that doesn’t work with audio books, but that’s just the way it works for me.
How about you? What do you need to read?
Other important factors are stress level, smells, physical condition, and where you’re sitting. If you aren’t comfortable, it’s pretty hard to concentrate on prose. Maybe it can be a welcome distraction from your uncomfortable situation, IF you can concentrate on it. Maybe not.
We mustn’t forget the most important thing of all. The story and writing! If the writing and story sucks, it makes things so much more difficult! The story may be wonderful, but if the writing sucks, how can you suffer through it, regardless of the format or environment?
The writing may be top-notch, but the story may suck. This is a much rarer instance. Usually if the writing is great, the story is also great. Not always, but if the writer has their stuff together with technique, they more than likely know how to put the rest together as well.
How you read, how you prefer to read, all can make a difference in how much you enjoy what you’re reading.
Something to think about when you write for others and they put your book in their hands (or whatever).
Happy writing!


On the Facebook forums I participate in, with regards to inspiration, once in a while the question comes up on whether dreams affect one’s writing. That thought inspired me because this morning, I had to make one of my inevitable trips to the bathroom. When I lay back down, with my mind racing, I thought of the upcoming final confrontation in my latest fantasy novel, Across The Endless Sea.
Personally, my dreams have nothing to do with my stories, because I rarely, if ever recall my dreams anymore, not like I did when I was twenty. Most of them are a mishmash of things. They aren’t nightmares, or unpleasant, but busy from what I recall, and I usually forget them as soon as I wake. To me, that means they aren’t worth remembering. Sure, I can recall a few here and there, but they’re silly and have nothing to do with anything I’m writing. On the other hand…
When your brain is either shutting down for the night, or ramping up for the day, how often do you think about things?
In my case, most of the time I just shut down and next thing I know, I’m waking up for a bathroom break. Given my age, that’s inevitable most nights. I’m lucky if I can sleep through the night. At the same time, I’ve always had evenings, when despite being tired, or having napped too late, I can lay there for a while before I doze off.
Since I work and have a regular schedule, I go to bed at a certain time. If my body decides not to cooperate, I may lay there a while. My mind drifts and quite often, it may include some writing “thinking time.” This does not constitute dreaming. It rarely happens in the morning, but once in a while, that can happen too, like it did this morning (as I write this).
As the forums have shown, some people have come up with everything from details to complete plots based on dreams. This is something I’ve not been able to do because when I do recall a dream, it rarely has a lasting impact, and the details quickly fade. There are only a couple that have stuck with me over the decades, and I have no interest in writing about them. Not my genres, at least so far.
Some of you may write down your dreams when you wake. While your memory is still fresh, you can record them for later use. There are very thick books full of the meaning of dreams, which one can take with a grain of salt. We used to have a couple of those books and maybe they have some psychological value, but they may also be hocus pocus, depending on your philosophical outlook. My problem is that even at the time, I was never able to recall enough details of most of my dreams for the books to do any good…or bad. They certainly wouldn’t have been any good to use for plot details if I’d been a writer at that time!
For some, dreams are gold. From writers to musicians, dreams can be the golden goose when it comes to inspiration. I guess it all depends on your recall and what you interpret from them. While I can recall details of many obscure events in my waking life, I guess I’ve been spared those same details from my dreaming life. For others, it’s just the opposite. They recall exquisite details of their dreams, but can’t remember what they had for dinner the night before.
You may be all hot and bothered by a truly inspiring idea, however, when it comes to execution, is it something you have the capability to carry out? Is this idea something that can be turned into a logical story that others will buy?
To me, people have lots of crazy dreams. Over my many decades, I’ve recalled dreams I’ve been able to talk about (yeah, I have had a few) and while they were great to talk about, they were also weird and didn’t make a whole lot of sense in execution. Same for friends who also recalled dreams. We’d once in a while talk about some weird dream we had, and it was something contradictory…something that was impossible in real life. How do you turn that into a believable story?
Then again, fiction is fiction. That impossible dream, with a little nuanced adjustment, can be turned into a perfect story. It can be turned into one with a minimal amount of suspended disbelief. Sometimes that’s how some of the great stories are created.
Yup, once in a while, dreams actually work for inspiration, in that regard.
While it’s never happened to me yet, it could very well happen to you. You just have to make sure the original “not such a hot idea” is adjusted so it becomes the next “hot idea.”
As it turned out, I was able to write the final confrontation scene in Across The Endless Sea later in the day. Part of that twilight thinking helped me work out what I needed. The rest came while daydreaming while eating breakfast.
Whether the before sleep or waking twilight time gets you going, or dreams themselves help you, it’s something to consider when coming up with ideas for your writing. Then there’s always daydreaming…
Happy writing!


The other day I got an e-mail from my publisher to give her a call. I did, and she said she’d gone through Spanish Gold to format it for a September release. In the process, despite already having done the major edits and just now waiting a final proof read, she noticed something that she thinks needs to be fixed.
We discussed the issue and I agreed. It’s a crutch I fall back on, something I unconsciously do, that despite all, and the editing we all did, it took a fifth or so set of eyes to see it in the “clean” edit. It’s something that jumped out to her after everyone else was so close to it, they couldn’t see the forest through the trees.
I’m not going to say what it is because I don’t want every potential reader looking for something that won’t be there when it finally gets to print.
I’ve corrected countless bad habits over the years. Despite all, I still fit into a comfortable writing pattern, and after the hundreds of odd quirks I’ve corrected over the years, I haven’t ironed out all of them. I probably never will.
No matter your experience, you’re going to fall into patterns and have certain crutches and fall backs you use to get out of situations you find yourself in when you’re writing. It’s only natural. It’s, of course, far worse when you’re first starting out. Then again, you haven’t developed your chops yet, so some of these quirks you haven’t had enough experience to learn yet. On the other side, you may have learned some of these things to correct other errors and got to use them a bit too much.
Many of these repetitious quibbles, such as the same dialogue tags, using the same phrases over and over again, using the same noun-verb combinations, misspelling the same words or using them in the wrong context are all developed as you come up with your bursts of writing inspiration. The better you get, the more honed your chops become, the more natural you are at self-correcting as you write.
There’s nothing that squelches creativity than bogging down to think of every nuance of writing just to make each individual sentence and paragraph perfect right out of the gate.
Call it verbal diarrhea – just blurt it out and fix it later.
The trick is to get better enough so that when you self-edit and then let others edit, there’s less work to do.
I’ve mentioned this a few times here at Fred Central, but I’ve known of a few writers who are extremely slow at writing because they ponder over every word, every sentence and every paragraph before they ever commit it to paper (or electronics). To me, that would squelch all the creativity right out of me.
Like I’m sitting here at my desk blurting out this piece right now. It’s just flowing and I’m trying to self-edit as I write it. I’m only going to go through it once, probably Tuesday right before I post it. Maybe I’ll re-look at it Sunday just for kicks. That’s it. The reason is that I’ve been doing this a long time. Also, I’m not going to go to extremes and pick over every word and run it through the Chicago Manual of Style, or the AP Manual. I’d never get anything done.
The same for your stories. You need to learn your chops, so you have fewer crutches and fall backs. Face it, you’re going to have some.
Don’t go to extremes to avoid crutches and fallbacks. Just learn from them and if you can, avoid them in the future as you work at it.
Don’t squelch your creativity just to squelch a habit. If you can minimize it, do so, but not at the expense of losing your spark. That’s what editing is for.
Most of us are not even aware of our crutches and fallbacks initially, until an editor or beta reader or critiquer points them out to us. It’s then that we can act on them by slowly incorporating the fix into our prose. Learn from it, but don’t make it a psychological phobia.
The more you write, the better you’ll be at avoiding crutches and fallbacks.
As you’ll notice, I didn’t list a lot of examples. The reason is that this isn’t an instruction guide. Why? There are way too many crutches and fallbacks in writing to list. It would go way beyond the scope of this article. Let critiquers, editors, and beta readers tell you what you’re doing over and over again. THAT will let you INDIVIDUALLY know what your crutches and fallbacks are.
Happy writing!


Through the several Facebook forums I subscribe to, one of the things people hate the most next to marketing is editing. For me, I can go along with the marketing thing. However, when it comes to editing, it’s a natural part of the writing process and I enjoy it almost as much as writing. I say almost only because I’m not spewing out the verbal diarrhea that is the freedom of pantsing the initial manuscript. In some ways, I almost enjoy it more because I’ve already accomplished something, and now I’m revisiting it to where I can sit back and enjoy it. The only difference is now I’m mopping up.
The initial burst of writing will likely include some self-editing. The better you get, the more self-editing you do as you write, usually in the same session, or maybe a few days later. Then, if you have a critique group, after they get a crack at it, you fix things and move on.
That’s all part of the initial burst and self-editing phase.
The first hard edit should come after you’ve divorced yourself from the manuscript for a few months, or longer. During this time, you should’ve sat the book (or story) aside and moved on to something else. Get it completely off your mind so you can come back with a fresh perspective.
Advantages of this are not only that you can more readily see flaws you missed, but after so much time, you’ve probably also gained a few more snippets of skill you can now apply to your work. That’s right. Maybe through some means, you learned about consistent contractions, or never start a sentence with “But” or “And”, or mixing POVs (head hopping), or a host of other things that you can now incorporate into the work.
This rest period might also highlight plot flaws you missed on the initial run-through.
If you’re lucky enough, give the story to a few beta readers and get their HONEST feedback. This may highlight things you cannot see because of forest through the trees.
There are many things people don’t like about editing. The repetition of having to go through the story again. Having a fear of not knowing what to do or how to fix something. The fear of changing too little or too much. The tediousness of it all. These are all understandable issues. Let’s look at a few things one-by-one.
     1. YOU DON’T KNOW WHAT YOU’RE DOING – While you can write the story okay, I’ve seen a lot of writers that just want to hire an editor and are willing to pay big bucks for it. They have all kinds of excuses for it like time, effort, they have the money, they don’t have the skill…bla bla bla. All are excuses for not sucking it up and getting with the program. However, there are always practical reasons for this approach as well, like a one-time project.
     2. NO TIME – If you had the time to write the book, you should have or find the time to edit it.
     3. NO FUN – If writing is a passion, editing is a part of it. Editing is like revisiting an old friend. You get to tweak and retweak to make the story even better for your potential audience.
     4. DON’T HAVE THE SKILL – Back to #1. Of course, when you start out you don’t have the skill. That’s part of what editing is all about. It’s a learning process. The more you write, the more you learn how to write. The more you edit, the more you learn how to edit, and the more you learn how to self-edit, and the better you are at initially writing. Then, you have less to edit when you do subsequent edits on the next book. It’s a self-improving cycle. You can’t get better if you never start.
How you edit is important as well.
On a computer, especially a program like Word, it’s a simple as correcting a sentence by deleting the word, sentence, paragraph or whatever and typing over it.
If you’re writing on paper, it’s a bit different because you have to red-pencil or blue-pencil it, then come back and re-write it which makes it a lot more labor intensive.
If your MS is in a .pdf, you may have to count lines and use a separate correction sheet, which is very labor intensive as well. Count down the lines. On the correction sheet, not the page number, then the line, then write down the correction for the publisher or editor.
If you’re editing a manuscript online, it can be even more labor intensive, especially if you have to track the changes. Colors may be used and side notes to tell the editor what you changed and why. The editor may also use the side notes to suggest a change and let you agree or disagree with any changes, and why. This is a very labor-intensive process as well, but it pays in the long run.
The joys of editing are many, at least if you love writing and the process of it. Face it. If this is a passion, every aspect of the creative process should be loved as much.
For me, revisiting the story and making it as perfect as possible are all part of it. As I read through the manuscript over and over again, I get a thrill to see my words down there, and what I’ve already created. I know that someday, those words will be out there for everyone to read. Hopefully, those words will bring entertainment and joy.
Happy writing!


The other day, on one of my fantasy Facebook forums, someone asked about how we’d address a funeral in our fantasy world.
Since I personally don’t believe in funerals, I said so and also said since I don’t, why should I write about them?
Understandably, I got quite a reaction to that.
The thing is that I don’t believe in NOT mourning for the dead, per se. I just don’t believe in the traditional funeral. Never have. My reasons are my reasons which are neither here nor there. However, as others pointed out, what about my audience? How do I handle death for THEM?
That made me think.
As authors, how do you handle death in your story? It doesn’t matter what genre you’re dealing with. Be it fiction, or even non-fiction. How do you deal with death? It may be a beloved character, a main character, or it could be someone peripheral, or even hated. People may grieve for them in some way.
The traditional funeral, which most know of according to popular media (or personal experience), are usually based on Christian values. While that sounds biased, which it is, that’s mostly what you’ll see on TV, in movies, and in books. While there are other forms of traditional funerals, by the numbers, they aren’t near as prominent. I’m sure most religions are represented in one form or another, but how many of you can count on your hand the movies or TV shows, or even books that portray a non-Christian funeral?
Add that to the many biases conveyed by media in general.
Diversity is finally becoming more prominent in the media, and other cultures are creeping into the list.
In a fantasy world, they often tend to be a Pagan variation of the traditional funeral. A lot of times, they’re based on the Viking or Druid ceremonies. I could go on and on.
It doesn’t necessarily have to be in a fantasy world, but there’s a particular freedom in fantasy to make something up with a funeral, or more precisely, a mourning of the dead. On the other hand, why does it have to be restricted to any genre?
It can be as simple as digging a hole and placing the body in it. All the friends gather around, say a few words, and that be it. Or, in a more rowdy story, everyone pees on the grave as a salute, even the women, or they all pour a beer over the grave. As my father-in-law used to joke, pour a beer on the grave after circulating it through his kidneys.
In a more modern real-world tale, that may not be possible with all the legal implications of disposing of a body, if one does not want to suspend the readers disbelief too much. Instead, maybe disposing of the ashes off a cliff, something that’s actually done in real society wherever it’s legal.
The characters could just leave the corpse where it lies, and mourn later with a simple thought of better times. I’ve seen that in at least two movies in the past two weeks alone.
Or…mourn them on the spot and that’s it…for practical reasons. Later on, maybe do something in honor of the character. Not exactly a funeral, but a necessity.
In a lot of cultures, dealing with death is as much or more of a ritual than dealing with life. You, as a writer, have the opportunity to write about it as you see fit.
Depending on the type of story, you can choose not to deal with it at all. It has nothing to do with realism. It has to do with your taste as a writer and whether it’s important to what you want to say.
A story is about what you want to tell. If you want to deal with funerals and mourning the dead as part of your story, so be it.
If you do, you have the freedom to choose what type of “funeral” for that character you want to choose. It can be some elaborate Christian traditional deal, some other religious ceremony, to something made up, or as simple as tipping a glass and be done with it. It’s all in the nature of the characters you create, what the story demands, and how you want to deal with it.
I personally don’t believe in funerals, so why should I write about them?
Does that mean I’m going to deny my readers of the “pleasure” of a good funeral?
Depends on your definition of a funeral. I’m going to deal with death in my own way and I’ll guarantee, it will not likely be with a traditional funeral…but then again, if the muse strikes and I find a good reason…you never know. After all, I do also write icky bug.
Happy writing!


Since this question NEVER comes up on the Facebook forums I participate in, I thought I’d address it. While I’ve continually hinted at it, I thought I’d bring it on full force.
There’s such a thing as independent creativity. Then there’s creativity by committee. When someone asks for help through an on-line forum, I consider that creativity by committee…at least in a way.
It’s not the same as research. There IS a difference.
Let’s think about this.
To be clear, the main forum I get the creativity question on is the fantasy forum. The other forums I’m on don’t usually address creativity questions. With the others, it’s usually about grammar, syntax, marketing, general writing, and research questions. On the other hand, in the fantasy forum, at least half if not more of the questions have to do with specific details about the unique worlds these authors create.
Should an elf be named so and so. What would you call a wizard who does so and so. If you developed a race based on Japanese Samurai, what would…
My standard answer is always: “It’s your world. Just make it up. The only key is when you do, follow your own rules and be consistent.”
When you ask for help naming characters, does this mean those characters now belong to those who named them?
It all depends on how you look at it.
In real-world fiction, many popular authors have run naming contests as publicity and marketing deals to generate interest in a book or series. The lucky winner gets their name, whether personal or made up as a character in the next book. In this way, the author still owns the rights to the name in the context of the story, but has pulled off a clever marketing deal to gain publicity and fans.
When you ask for help over the internet on a forum, obtaining offhand offered names is a grayer area. You can take the suggestions, customize them into the final product, and then hope these totally unknown people don’t try to sue you for using “their creation.” As unlikely as that seems, it’s not impossible in our litigious society. On the other hand, that person may have bragging rights for saying they contributed to your book, especially if you remember and give them credit on the thanks page.
On the other hand, since you did not pull the name out of the air, it’s not your creation. For some authors, that can be a deal breaker.
Since you’re creating a fantasy world, that genre is a misnomer, but only partially. Depending on how deep your fantasy is, you could be writing in a half real-world setting, turning it into a sub-fantasy genre. The closer to reality your world is, the closer to the truth your cultural references have to be. So…asking for help through research or on the forums keeps your FANTASY from being totally original in that respect.
In the same vein, your made up world is no longer made up, because now you’re strapping yourself to something real, and you’re no longer bound just by your own rules. You’re now hindered by something besides just a suspension of disbelief. You’re bound by hard reality, history, and real-world culture. When you ask for help, especially on line, you’re not only relying on others for originality, but also for their supposed expertise. I’d sincerely hope you’ll verify any facts they give you.
Like research into a real-world setting, you can ask for help with cultural references and still make your story original. However, be prepared for some to call you on whatever customizations you make. Also be careful about cultural appropriation. That’s a big thing nowadays so to me, it would seem safer to just make something up and stay completely away from something you’re not intimately familiar with. You never know who you’re going to piss off. If you make up your own world with your own rules, NOBODY can call you on it unless you break your own rules. You can’t insult anyone or smear someone’s culture, at least not intentionally.
Surprisingly, this one I see a lot.
“I’ve started the story but I don’t know where to go from here. Please help.”
Here at Fred Central, I’ve said over and over again, no matter what type of writer you are, whether a pantser or a plotter, NEVER start a story until you at least have A and B. Do not pass GO, do not collect $200 until you know where you want to start and where you want to end FIRST! End of story, both figuratively and literally. If you can’t figure that out first, set the idea aside and find another story to work on. You are going to flounder.
There’s nothing wrong with B modifying a bit as the story develops, but you need a solid finish line to shoot for or your story is going to ramble and get lost and it’s not going to have anyplace to go.
Now, if you DO have a B but have written yourself into a corner, got off on a tangent, then maybe you aren’t cut out to be a pantser. That could be your problem.
Asking for help on the forums will mean others are creating your story for you, maybe not specifically, but in general terms. In essence, they’re ghost writing it for you.
Is that not making the story original?
I’d say that’s up to debate because after all, EVERYTHING has been done before.
Say, you complain that you are lost and have written yourself into a brick wall. Someone comes to the rescue and tells you how to get out of the mess.
Have they just re-written the book for you? Is it now their story?
Not really.
Maybe the plot isn’t your idea, but you still have to write the words. Therefore, what’s left on paper aren’t the helpers words, they aren’t his or her voice. He or she may have come up with the idea, but it’s still your voice. Therefore it’s your story.
On the other hand, whoever helped you may want credit for helping you.
That may get sticky for you, the author. The idea wasn’t originally and uniquely yours.
See the predicaments you can get into by asking for certain help?
This is especially true for CREATIVE help.
Research help is a whole different animal.
Most authors have no issue with asking for research help. I do all the time.
This applies to technical issues, NOT creative ones.
There’s a big difference.
You can ask creative questions without getting yourself in an originality pickle. You just have to think first before asking, and make sure it’s not something specific to your originality.
The intent here is to make you think before you ask. That is all. Asking is the only way to learn, but asking the right questions can also save a lot of grief in the long run.
Happy writing!


            Okay. What brought up this rather brilliant (maybe…read on) bit of marketing and categorization was a bit of misdirection that fooled me recently.

Some that know me are aware that I’m no big fan of vampires. I never have been, even from the times when Bela Lugosi was still alive. Yeah, I’m THAT old.

For some reason, of all the icky bugs in horror, those particular monsters have never clicked with me.

Over the generations, vampires have gone through stages from the horror inducing fanged suit-wearing Dracula to the sparkly whatevers of Stephanie Meyer. In-between those have been a slew of variants as people have indulged in their passion for the bloodthirsty icky bugs (monsters).

However, two things have stayed true to this day.

Vampires have almost always been classified in the horror, romance or fantasy categories.

I’m not a fan.

Of course, the second one is completely off the map to the rest of the world. Then again, I can’t be the only one that either never was a fan, or is by now, so sick of them they want to scream at the thought!


Well, there were actually two, but the most recent was a reminder of the first.

Before I digress, let me give you the most recent.

While browsing the science fiction/fantasy section of Barnes & Noble, I ran across an intriguing series of books (well, two so far) by this British author. The description or back cover blurb and the endorsements gave a different impression of what I actually got once I read them.

While the first book was okay, about a third of the way through the second book, in my opinion, it “devolved” into “another one of those.” In other words, it turned into a vampire story.

I almost put it down.

The writing was okay, but a bit tedious. I was willing to go along with that, given it had some intriguing icky bugs. That is…until the vampires showed up. Then things went downhill. Nowhere on the back cover blurb did it say anything about vampires. Otherwise, I probably…no I never would’ve picked up the series in the first place. I can just bet that from now on, the series will continue with vampires. They always do, not to be too cynical.

Now, on to the first incident. About three decades ago, I read a great UFO series which will remain nameless because I know the author (who I met at one of our writer’s conferences). I enjoyed about a dozen of the books. When it came to the grand finale, the last novel in the series where the aliens finally arrived, the author ruined it for me. Why? Yup, you guessed it. Vampires! Aaagh! Shot down the entire series. I was SOOO disappointed. I let him know it too. He just shrugged it off and told me he had to end it some way, and that’s the way he swung at the time. Oh well…

Nowhere in that entire series was there any kind of hint that this was all going to be a vampire story. Not a hint.


While there HAVE been a select few vampire stories I loved for a change, they’re as rare as hen’s teeth, and no apologies for the cliché. They Hunger by Scott Nicholson was a good example. In this one, the vampires were true and savage icky bugs.

So, what to do? How about a bit of categorization and truth in advertising?

In other words, make a specific category for vampire fiction?

That’s right.

While they have romance and horror and western and fantasy. How about a genre specifically for vampire fiction? Let it cover all the sub-genres that go with it like horror, romance, fantasy, western, what have you.

By doing that, nobody will be fooled again, and those of us that just can’t stand vampires, no matter what form they take, won’t have to suffer though some story only to find out it’s about vampires!


I’m only being partially facetious here.

The issue is that the bookstores, whether they be brick and mortar, or on line, tend to lump just about everything they can into as simple a category as they can because of marketing.

The more they break it down, the more they have to categorize things and the more complicated things get when they try to shelve books.

Why is this a problem?

When authors don’t follow the rules of creativity!

That’s right. When authors mix genres, then what are the bookstores to do? How are they going to shelve a book that mixes fantasy with vampire and horror and western?

What shelf would that go on?


While this all sounds like a rant for nothing, I only bring it up because you, as writers, will run across this when you write anything at all. Be prepared, because you’re going to be creative. You’re going to write what you want, and when you’re dun didded, what’re you left with?

Does your story fit neatly into mystery, western, fantasy, romance, horror?

Are you a pure genre writer, or…does it fit into a sub-category?

Does it mix those elements and sub-elements?

When YOU, AS A READER, go to the bookstore and get upset because you find a romance in the SYFY section, because it’s BOTH, who are you going to get upset with?

All I can say is that it can be a tough call for a publisher and a bookseller to categorize mixed-genre stories. It’s even worse to sub-categorize them, so basically, they don’t. That’s probably one reason the filters on the likes of Amazon or other on-line sites are not all that great. Ever wonder why those “If you liked this book you may like…” lists of books are at the bottom of the screen are there? They may be similar, but step carefully.

To me, my take is that as an author, you should use truth in advertising, especially with the back cover blurb. Also when submitting to a publisher, you need to know what genre you’re writing because if you don’t know, how are they going to know?

In today’s times, books are lumped into too few general categories so it’s up to us, as authors, to use the back cover blurb to let the reader know the specifics. All the publisher can do is give the bookseller the general category of where to shelve the book. We need to help the reader by giving them a decent idea of what they’re about to buy beyond the basic genre.

In my case, I would sincerely appreciate that if your story’s about vampires, you state so! It’ll save some grief for those of us that are not fans. That goes for any genre, pure or mixed.

Happy writing!




I’ve talked about this in 2013 and as recently as 2018. I thought it worth revisiting again since it’s come up multiple times on the Facebook forums.

Yeah, you hear me quoting Facebook a lot here at Fred Central. Especially since COVID, that’s the main way to communicate besides Zoom or some other remote forum app. Little if anything is done in person anymore. In fact, going back, a lot of my articles were inspired by forums anyway, if not from my writer’s group meetings or our annual writer’s conference. While some people deplore Facebook, it does have it’s merits when it comes to open forums, if they’re properly monitored.

Where was I?

While I AM going to repeat info I’ve conveyed before, I’ve been inspired to add to that. There’s stuff I failed to mention before when it comes to naming your characters. Without further adieu, let’s get going.


It may seem like an easy task to come up with character names for your story, whether they’re fictional or real (and you generally have to use fictional names to protect the innocent or avoid lawsuits) (more on this later). You can pull the names out of a hat, out of the air, or mix and match them from a baby name book if you want. Maybe you can pull them randomly out of the phone book. Some well-known authors even run contests to publish fan names in their novels. As new writers, you probably don’t have a fan base for that purpose, so you’ll have to rely on other means.

Most of us, I imagine, pull them out of the air, probably inspired, like me, from random people and events around us at the time. Maybe they’re from something that happened in our past.

The inspiration for the name (not the actual character) Joseph “Detach” Datchuk, the main character in my Gold series, came from a guy I knew in elementary school.

On the other hand, in that same series, I pulled Mildred Pierce out of the air. It wasn’t until almost nine years later that I learned she was the name of a very famous character in a novel from the 40’s that I’d never heard of. That was purely coincidental.

Meleena, from my fantasy series is completely made up. I’d never heard of anyone with that name until recently when I discovered a disc jockey on Sirius XM radio with a similar, but different spelled version of that name.


I must make one thing very clear. These character names, even if inspired by real people, have no bearing on the real people! One has nothing to do with the other. The kid I got the name Detach from in no way resembles the character in my novel in either appearance or personality. The same for Mildred Pierce, or any other character I’ve named, so far at least. Maybe someday, the fan that wants to be in one of my books will get a little piece of their appearance or personality added to a character. Not much, but maybe a tiny bit, as a tribute.

I could go on and on. For you, sometimes you just hit it right and sometimes without realizing it, you nail some famous or infamous name and don’t know until someone tells you about it. As for Mildred Pierce, she’s a sidekick in the Gold series and I’m very fond of her. I have no intention of changing her name. I may throw in a comment about the famous novel but maybe not. There are probably hundreds of women named Mildred Pierce, so I don’t see changing it. It’s not like her character is named Angelina Jolie. That would be too unique to get away with.


An issue with making up names, especially in fantasy and science fiction worlds (world building) are similar sounding names. During a recent Facebook forum, this exact subject came up. My response was part of the following, but a shortened version. Below is the long version.

The subject of similar sounding names came up in Meleena’s Adventures – Gods Of The Blue Mountains. The main character is, of course, Meleena. That name is totally unique. In this first sequel, she’s hanging with a female Elf I’ve been calling Alinda. One of my critiquing friends pointed out that Meleena and Alinda sounded too much alike. I referred to my handy-dandy Meleena’s Adventures encyclopedia. I hadn’t alphabetized it yet, which prompted some much needed housekeeping. I have sections for names, places, creatures and things. It was enough of a sidetrack just to get through reordering the names. With that done, I went through every character name, one-by-one, from both books. Since then, I’ve added more from the third book as well. Since Alinda and Meleena did sound a lot alike, I had to find something unique, something that didn’t sound like any of the other common character names. It wasn’t long before I settled on Niin. There’s no other name like it. Where did I come up with it? I pulled it out of the air. I could’ve spent all day doing the same with random names, but that was honestly the first one that popped into my head. No indecision, no agony or worrying. Guess I just got lucky.

When you’re creating names for your story, similarity must be a consideration. Sound-alike names tend to confuse the reader. After a while, readers may not be able to distinguish between characters and that’ll weaken the impact of your prose. Each name should be different and distinctive. Alphabetizing my encyclopedia, which I should’ve done a long before this point, helped me see the big picture. It’s especially important in fantasy world building, where I have to make up names. I can’t be using Karl and Joe and Fred.

In a conventional novel, you don’t want your common characters to be named Ted and Fred and Jed. Or Jan and Fran and Nan. That would drive a reader nuts, and it wouldn’t be long before they’d lose track of who’s who.

There should be a distinct difference between names.


Where do I come up with these quirky fantasy names in the first place?

Maybe that goes with my fascination with foreign languages. Ever since I was a kid, I’ve always been keen on foreign tongues. Then, as an adult, I lived overseas and was exposed to multiple foreign languages. I got used to alternative tongues, accents, spelling and such. Making up my own words and names is no big deal. In fact, I’ve seen that in plenty of other fantasy authors. I can’t vouch for how easy they came up with the names, but they do.

Over the years, on multiple threads on the Facebook fantasy site, many people have polled the forum for ideas for names. While that’s one way, to me, these names should come from you, the writer, not from others. If someone else gives you the name, then it’s their idea, not yours. You don’t completely own it. Of course, if you take their name, modify it to make it your own, you could say you came up with it, but I, personally, wouldn’t want that. That’s just me.

However, you have to do whatever works for you, and if polling others is the method that gets you there, go for it.


The final thought on made up names is to make the names easy to pronounce. Don’t have them tongue twisters that need pronunciation guides just to figure out. Words with lots of punctuation, or with “French” or Gaelic spellings that don’t correspond to how they’re pronounced in English isn’t a good idea either. Okay, maybe a little, but only one or two…maybe. Give the name, how it’s pronounced, and leave it at that. Don’t have a whole bunch of names like that, or the reader is going to skip over them and blank out your “finely crafted artistic expressions.” I know I would. In fact, I often just make up my own pronunciation, regardless of what the author says.

Sometimes getting hung up on a pronunciation can be a distraction too. This can be a major way to jerk a person out of the story.


When you’re writing an autobiography or real-world historical story, things can get tricky. If your story requires you to use real people, you must be aware of possible lawsuits and slander and the whole gamut of real issues. Even using someone’s name supposedly in an innocent fashion can lead to major heartache if the person doesn’t want their name in print. It’s a lot more difficult to vet something like that. In some cases, it might be better to substitute fictitious names rather than deal with all the legal implications.


Whatever the case, naming characters can be fun or a real headache, depending on how you want to approach the issue.

Happy writing!



Quite often, word count comes up on the Facebook forums. I last wrote about it in 2018 with this article, Word Count. The other day, I finished the first draft of my third Meleena book, Across The Endless Sea, so I figured now would be a good time to resurrect the subject.

I was recently asked a question about word count. I get that quite often. There are “rules” of word counts floating around out there. If you look hard enough, you’ll find set counts for certain genres. However, here’s the clincher – there’s no one set rule!

It all depends on the source.

It’s like the “pirate code – guidelines.” Aaaargh!

When it comes to visual observing in one of my other passions, astronomy, it’s the same thing with the magnitude of celestial objects, in other words, how “bright” (or dim) the object is. It all depends on the source you get the magnitude number from, and how and what they took the reading for. Say your telescope has a magnitude limit of such and such. The object you’re trying to look for has a magnitude of such and such, which is well within range of your telescope. However, you cannot see it. What’s up?

There are other factors at play.

Just like with word count.


There’s a difference between a short story, a novella and a novel.

A short story is usually up to around 15K words, however, many are around 4K but can be as much as 25K.

A novella is usually around 50K max.

A novel is from 60K on up.

Already see problems…vagaries?

Already see the “pirate code” in play?


Over the years, variations of the “rules” have been published in various forms. However, they’ve not only been fluid, but have contradicted each other.

Without even going into details, depending on what’s been discussed at the conventions that particular year, novels can range for a first-time author from 60K to a little over 100K, depending on the genre.

Westerns, mystery, and romance tend to be the 60 – 80K range.

Thrillers and some horror 70-90K.

Fantasy and science fiction 80-100K+ (the + is what gets many writers).

Keep in mind that this is anecdotal. Some of that info was derived from various numbers over the decades and these statistics are highly flexible. They’re in no way set in stone.

Not only that, but there have been lots of exceptions to the rules in BOTH extremes!


I’ll tell you right off, do not go by what you see in the bookstores!

Generally, the examples you see in the bookstores are by established authors who already have a fan base and can get away with murder. They get far more leeway than any first-time author. Don’t think you, as a newbie, can just do what you want and get away with it, especially if you’re trying to break in fresh with the big six (or how many are left nowadays). There are, of course, first-time author exceptions from indie publishers, but don’t go by them, either. Read on…

Now, on the other hand, if you’re going the self-publishing route, all bets are off, but then again, don’t expect to see your book on the shelf in the bookstore either, or at least in the same quantities or as easily as someone going the traditional route!

So, what are agents looking for?

For a first-time writer, regardless of genre, if you submit a manuscript that’s very long, especially for your genre, the agent is going to think that this author doesn’t know how to get to the point.

With the exception of certain epic fantasy or literary tropes, a high word count is a red flag for an author that doesn’t know how to write tight and right!

When that agent sees your cover page with the word count up top, they’re already biased to some extent. Now, when they get to the first page and see what you accomplish, or don’t, they know right away if you can make a story move.

Can you show a good western or romance in 60-80K words?

Can you do a good thriller in 80-100K words?

Can you convey a good epic fantasy in 120K words?

These numbers are general, slightly arbitrary, but in the ballpark. I hesitate to give anything more specific because what you really need to do is go to the individual web site for each agency and look at their specifics.

That’s right.

What’s all this about word count?

What you’re likely going to find when you get down to the real deal is that when you go deep into the query process, a lot of the agencies are going to have their own statistics, their own requirements of what they expect for a word count. Many won’t. They’ll either expect you to know because you’re either supposed to know what’s expected of your genre, or you’re a maverick and don’t care about the rules.

If you’re a maverick, you need to step carefully. If it were me, as far as word count, I’d rather be on the short side than the long side.


Back to what I said before.

Writing right and tight is a lot better than a manuscript full of bloat.


I originally wrote my latest novel, Lusitania Gold in 1995. That rough draft was 133K to 134K words. After multiple edits and reading it to my writer’s group here in Las Vegas, I got rid of the bloat. I pared it down to 96K without losing a single bit of the story or plot. That’s right, I cleaned it up and made it better. Right and tight.

You can do that too.

What about the other side? What if your novel is too short?


So far, I’ve mostly been alluding to manuscripts that are too long, at least indirectly. However, what if your MS is too short? What do you do?

Rather than bloat it up with irrelevant material, why not just submit it as a novella?

Just because the story doesn’t warrant a longer format doesn’t mean you have to add bloat to make it qualify. Bloat is bloat, and an agent can spot that just as easily as they can in one that’s already overbaked.

The point is, write the story right and tight, no matter what the actual length.

I can tell you if it’s much over 150K, it’ll be hard to sell for a first-time author unless it’s really killer. It can happen, but you have a lot of competition out there, so be prepared. Even that’s a vague number when you get down to it, and there have been success stories on both sides of that figure.

Whatever you do, the key is to write efficiently and without bloat. That’s the best way to get through the door, regardless of word count.

Like I said at the beginning of this essay, I just finished the first draft of Across The Endless Sea. Right now, it sits at 135,418 words. Since this will be either the fifth or sixth book with my publisher, as an established series (the third in my fantasy series), I’m within the ballpark already. However, I KNOW it’s got some bloat. After all, it’s a first draft. There are things I can probably cut that won’t affect the story. Maybe not. Maybe I can correct a few commas and it will be perfect. Yeah, sure! I’ve been at this passion way too long to believe that.

What I DO know is I don’t need to add a bunch to it. I’m set on that front.

Happy writing!


            The other day, I was purging file cabinets and shredding files. In one of them I found most of my old rejection letters. Not all 691 of them, of course, but a lot of them. As a bonus, I was able to tear off the cancelled (and some not used yet) stamps. While I have long given up on my regular stamp collecting, one never knows, but I digress. Besides the rejection letters, I also found more examples than I expected of old manuscripts. I think I printed them for friends, beta readers, just to have hard copies, or whatever. Needless to say, when I now have copies of the books published sitting in a box right next to me, there’s no need for an obsolete manuscript! It’s not like I’m Clive Cussler who had so many fans, he was giving out copies of rough edited manuscript pages at one time. Besides, what I have published now is so different in quality compared to the original that I’d rather it not be out there, considering how much more refined my chops are now.

Amongst all of those manuscripts, I ran across a binder with the entire, hand edited copy of The Cave.

As some of you hard-core fans may know, The Cave was the very first novel I ever wrote. My usual quote is that “The Cave will never see the light of day.”


My perception then was that while it holds affection as the very first one, it’s also before I knew what I was doing, therefore it’s probably so bad it’s beyond resurrecting.


Since I had this hard copy in my hands, before I shredded it, I wanted to make sure I still had a viable copy on the computer. THIS COMPUTER.

When I pulled up the copy that has been transferred from computer to computer since 1995, it at least pulled up on the screen. However, the version of Word was so old that it wasn’t editable. In fact, it was so old that it wouldn’t even resave as the current version!

What to do?

The only thing I could do was select all (at least it would let me do that), and then paste all 82K+ words into a brand new file in the current version of Word. Therefore, The Cave, written in early 1995, now has a modern compatible and editable version readily available.

Why should I bother?

Lo and behold, before I even did this, I compared side-by side a few samples from the printed version to the old file and found they matched. Turns out, the last time I edited it (way back when), the version I printed WAS the last edit. I cannot recall who did the edit for me. Unfortunately, their name is nowhere on the sticky notes or the write-in edits.


Digging a little deeper, I noticed something. While the manuscript needs obvious work, on first blush in twenty-five years, it isn’t nearly as bad as I recalled.

Without a complete read-through, I don’t know for sure, but The Cave almost looks like it might indeed be salvageable. If so, that means I might be able to add another genre to my growing resume. Science Fiction/thriller. Well, at least, that’s the sort of genre so far. I’ll have to go through it again to make a determination as to whether that’s a solid category or not.


I’ve said this many times before. I’ve never trashed an MS. I never really trashed The Cave. I didn’t take advantage of it because I didn’t think it was up to snuff. However, on second thought, after some sample paragraphs, there might be some life to it. If I’d really trashed it, I would’ve deleted the files.

I DO have a few stories I’ve started but never completed yet. Why? I got distracted by other more pressing things. Those half-started stories will be completed someday, just not today. They don’t have a priority. That’s not my usual pattern, but a few times in my life, I’ve veered from my writing technique (one book at a time) due to life. Until recently, I’d forgot all about those.

Just think, The Cave might be another book under my belt. Don’t get your hopes up yet. I still have to read through it all the way, then see if I had too much wishful thinking. However, it’s something I can work on between my other books and before I get my nose down deep into the third Meleena book again.


Never trash anything you’ve done!

Never trash anything you’ve completed.

Set it aside for however long it takes you to go back with fresh eyes. Later, it still may not be a winner, but maybe once again, by waiting, you’ll have better chops, have learned a few things, had more life experiences, something that makes you better prepared to fix or even just tweak that “hopeless” story you were so ready to dismiss.

Will I be successful with The Cave?

Maybe not, but at least I can give it a more experienced try. After all, it’s been twenty-five years.

Happy writing!



I talk about editing quite a bit here at Fred Central. Most recently I did this past May with my article Forest Through The Trees Two. THAT article was a repeat from 2012. There are many more.

There’s a good reason I bring this subject to the forefront. It’s a major part of what we do as writers. Writing the story is only the first step. Writing chapters, scenes, paragraphs, sentences…these all have to be perfected before they can see the light of day (publication). The last thing we want to do is embarrass ourselves, alienate our audience, come off as amateurs (well those of us that care).

The other day, a question came up from another do-it-yourself author.

“What if I can’t afford an editor? What are the chances of doing all the editing myself?”

Something to that effect.

Needless to say, but I will anyway, most of the responses told this person it just doesn’t work that well, if at all. Without a second set of eyes, no matter how good you think you are, you can’t see the forest through the trees (or words to that effect).

Here we go again.


The market is flooded with self-published books. Most of them are easy to spot from the cover alone. The artwork is cheesy and atrocious. That’s a red flag. Given the author somehow has an artistic flare, and slips one out that gets through the cracks, what about what’s inside?

I’ve had the unfortunate experience of purchasing questionable self-published icky bug stories, since that’s usually all I’ll buy sight unseen (except I DO check the “what’s inside” sample on Amazon for third person, past-tense).

After reading a few chapters, it becomes readily apparent that the author self-edited their masterpiece. Not only is the spelling syntax and punctuation out there, but the point of view is usually out of control. Then there are often plot threads that go nowhere, plenty of things that don’t make sense, and many times a conclusion that’s stupid or left hanging with no satisfaction. Oh, and let’s not forget excess backstory. Why is it people insist on so much backstory. Why not just start the story with the backstory and work forward?

Sometimes some of these things are found in EDITED stories, but not as rampant. When you go cheap and have no second set of eyes, you’re blind to your own work. What you see on the page isn’t necessarily what you actually wrote.


The ugly truth is that you can only cut so many corners. A big selling point is the cover, but some people are not all that concerned with the cover.

A catchy title is key for some, but that can be fudged to some extent.

What will kill you is between the front and back cover.

If the text is crap, you’ll gain no audience, or at the least, severely impede your potential audience. Sure, I’ve seen some horribly written EDITED stories be huge hits because they touched on hot-button topics. They’re rare, but not unheard of.

Most of the time though, the MAJORITY of the time, I emphasize, your story will have to grow, slowly pick up an audience on the merits of your writing. That means your message must be clear. For it to be clear, it needs to be properly and well edited.



I cannot emphasize enough how bad an idea it is to self-edit an entire book.

You only see what you INTENDED, not what you WROTE!

Your mind fills in the blanks, regardless of what you wrote. It takes a SECOND SET OF EYES, maybe more to catch the things you cannot see.

Sure, editors cost, but it’s worth it to find a good one. That’s one of the best investments you can make.


Initially, if you want to go on the cheap, you can at least start with beta readers. Unless you live in a cave somewhere, or are a hermit, find a few beta readers willing to go through your manuscript and give it a run-through. Let them give you honest feedback on what might be fixed. That can give you insight on major and even minor issues to fix before you seek out an editor.


If you’re in an area with a writers critique group, join and if they’re a good positive group, read your stuff to them and get feedback. This type of group can be invaluable.


If part of the reason you don’t want to get edited is not only to save money, but because you can’t take the criticism, or are “too shy,” or whatever, leave your ego at the door. Just think of how reviewers are going to tear your precious “best book in the universe” apart when you get it posted to the world?


In my case, I pitched and queried and was persistent. I used a little of everything and finally, after a long time, since I refused to self-publish, I landed a traditional publisher with a small press. I never paid a dime for editing. I had beta readers, read most of my entire manuscripts to my writer’s group, and self-edited. Through my self-editing, I discovered what I’m blind to, and always will be. I know my limits. You should too.

Happy writing!


Most people like to express their views. It’s a natural tendency. Why not? With the advent of social media, it’s even more prevalent than the old water cooler, or coffee shop, or bench in the park.

The thing about social media is that it’s completely unfiltered, not face-to-face, and somewhat anonymous. Plus, what one posts is not always reliable.

Given that, when one decides they want to become an author, their social media may come to haunt them. Notice I didn’t say come BACK to haunt them.


Because, quite often, authors never develop a separate media platform from their personal lives. Hence, when they speak their mind about sex, religion or politics, guess what?

I’ve probably talked about this multiple times here on Fred Central, but I’m not even going to go back and look up the specific articles. I’d love if YOU did, but hey, this isn’t about that. This is a cautionary tale for you.


I have a fellow author friend (actually more than one, but I’m keeping it singular for simplicity) who published a book. It’s a great book. It should be a best-seller. However…

My friend has very strong political beliefs and is not afraid to express them on his/her personal Facebook page.

That’s fine and dandy.

The issue is that this person also uses that same Facebook page as their author page.

As soon as the book launched, this author got a one-star review, a very nasty one, that had nothing to do with the book. It was all about the person’s political views. While most who read reviews might disregard this review, on the other hand, if they read it and agree with the reviewer, they may never read the book, or anything else the author ever writes.

I’ve seen this happen over and over again. I’ve been inspired to write this article, for once, not by the usual forum threads on Facebook, but because of the increasingly polarizing political views of Facebook friends and fellow authors.

It just struck me as something that anyone with marketing savvy, of which I admit I’m no expert, would want to think about.

I may not be the best at marketing, but I’m also not a complete dummy. I know how not to shoot myself in the foot.


You have to keep in mind that as an author, you live in two worlds. There’s your author world and your personal world.

You need to separate them unless you are a political writer.

I’ve said over and over again that as a reader, I cannot stand someone preaching to me in their writing, or being overtly political, even if I agree with them.

When I read, I read to escape. Subtle is okay, but overt pisses me off.

Sometimes I think I can tell an authors’ political stand by their writing. Quite often I can’t, and when I see something personal from them, I’m just as often surprised. This is good, because that means their writing has nothing to do with their personal biases.

On the other hand, if I can tell from the first page how they lean, I’m just as likely to put the book down, or never pick it up in the first place.

You need two worlds. An author world and a personal world.


If you are bound and determined to use your personal Facebook page as your author page, it’s best to keep yourself neutral. Stay away from sex, religion and politics unless you want to alienate half if not more of your audience.


The whole point of writing a book and getting it published is to sell it, right?

If you want to sell it, you need customers.

If you want customers, you need to sell said book from a neutral front. You need to attract an audience.

It’s just like going to the supermarket and buying cereal (my bias is cereal right now because I’m about to eat breakfast as I write this).

Do you name your cereal Catholic cereal? Is it cereal just for Baptists? Is it for women only? Is it cereal for Trump supporting conservatives? Is it cereal for liberals only?

Doesn’t sound very commercially viable does it?

If you’re trying to sell a fantasy, western, murder mystery, thriller, romance, why pigeon hole it by marketing it through a web presence full of political, sexual or religious posts that polarize so many different people?


Just like at work, at least for many of us, we have to keep our personal lives separate from our professional life.

Of course, you don’t have to. You can do anything you want.

However, of you expect, or care about selling books, it behooves you to set up a separate media platform whether a Facebook page or a completely different web site. Direct your fans and readers there. Limit your personal friends to those who agree with you!


I’m a hybrid.

First off, during one of the last visits to my dad before he passed away, he told me some profound things. One was that he told me for the first time ever, some things about World War Two that he’d never told me before. I was shocked. It took forty-plus years for him to reveal these shocking details.

Second, he gave me a bit of advice. Something that has stuck with me. It wasn’t the first time he told me this, but it was the first time I actually listened. He said that if I wanted to keep friends, never discuss sex, religion and politics.

That piece of advice has always stuck with me, so I pretty much keep my feelings close to the vest. While I do discuss that stuff occasionally with close friends, I keep it rational and never post publicly.

I have occasionally slipped and posted something on Facebook that might be considered political by some, but it’s always done as sarcasm, or humor, or once in a while, just plain frustration. Never to start anything.

Hell, nobody’s perfect.

To my point, besides keeping my personal page as neutral as possible, I also have two Facebook pages, one for each genre that I currently have published. If I start another genre, I’ll start another Facebook page. Besides that, I also have this, my web site. While my web site also contains other stuff like my personal astronomy and woodworking pages, it’s mainly for writing and books.

Nothing political, about religion, or sex. I keep it neutral.

You, as a reader, can feel safe coming to any of my sites knowing you’re not going to get badgered to death about something controversial. You’ll get a break from the torrent of politics and whatever on regular social media.


While some of my friends have let their voices be heard, many of them have ultimately paid the price in sales. That’s their call.

As a new writer and author, I strongly suggest you separate your personal from professional life and be very picky who you let into your personal world.

It’ll pay off in the long run.

Happy writing!



I thought about titling this article different things to do with race, but this goes beyond just that. While race IS at the forefront of many conversations right now, there’s…to use a tired but true old cliché… more ways to skin a cat. Now I’ve probably offended cats or PETA people.

In today’s cancel culture, one can become offended over just about anything.

While that sounds almost facetious, in fact, it’s quite true, especially when it comes to social media. In the context of a book, where there’s more time for an explanation and context to go with it, it’s not as much of an issue, but that ugly premise is still there.

Let’s look deeper.


Race is by far the easiest way to offend someone.

As an author, no matter how well intended, when you add in diverse characters to your story, since you have not lived those characters lives, you’re bound to write something untrue or unrealistic that’s likely to offend someone. The more insulated and unread you are toward these diverse people, the worse and more unrealistic the faux pax is going to be.

TV doesn’t always count.

Quite often, script writers throw in unrealistic dimensions to racial characters all for the sake of drama. They often skirt the borderline of what’s acceptable, consciously or unconsciously creating stereotypes for minorities or even majority races. On the other hand, sometimes these portrayals can be quite accurate, especially now as the entertainment industry is slowly forging ahead with diversity.

Books can be a great source of realism, if the right books are consulted.

By far, the best source is the people themselves.

If you want to write a race you are not, talk to them and feel them out for their experiences. That will help you build a more realistic character.

Just today, as I edit this, someone on one of the forums asked the question about describing someone’s skin using food, such as “olive skin.” What about “mahogany skin?” Skin the color of coffee, or skin the color of whatever? Is that an insult? I’m sure it is to someone. When you think of white people, they aren’t white either. Very few people except those that are albino even come close to actually being white, and they’re more pink than white, usually. So, how do you describe the color of someone’s skin, hair, other features without insulting them?

A good question.


This is something people don’t often think about and once again, media is quite often the source of numerous stereotypes. Of another more common source is the “I heard,” or the “I just assume” bunch. This is where real research is necessary.

If you portray a plumber as the typical butt crack money grubbing guy who won’t even listen to what you have to say, you have a problem.

Are all lawyers the same stereotype? Do all doctors automatically ignore women? Do all bankers ignore the little guy? Do construction workers all leer at women?

Not only are those stereotypes, but they’re also clichés and can offend as easily as ignore the reality.


Another 400lb gorilla in the room is religion. Quite often, religious people are portrayed as stereotypes. While one can’t deny that these stereotypical people DO exist, constantly badgering the reader with these people in every story gets kind of old.

When you’re NOT of said religion, of course, you should observe some real people of that religion. However, you should also talk to some of those people. Do some reading. You might be surprised.


Not every disabled person is completely helpless.

Not every disabled person is a saint.

Not every disabled person is a jerk.

If you don’t know someone that’s disabled, it would behoove you to seek them out and observe. You’ll find them just like everyone else.


This is an often overlooked area. One of my personal heroes from way back, Billy Barty, stared the organization Little People of America back in 1957 (I think). Little people are quite often dragged into stereotypes. It’s only been recently that we’ve seen them gain acceptance in major roles, such as Peter Dinklage.


This is another one that gets people riled, especially right now in an increasingly polarized time.

All conservatives are whacky right wing religious gun nuts.

All liberals are dirty liberal weenies who secretly want a communist state.

To some, there’s no in-between.

The reality is far different.

In the world of political thrillers, this gets to be a touchy subject because the bad guys usually have to lean one way or the other, or sometimes in a completely different extreme. The reader is then going to accuse the author of slanting one way or the other automatically, because of who the author made the bad guy. In this case, one automatically offends the other side even if it was just done for a good story.

You can’t win either way unless you come up with some bizarre third party? Some people will still twist it around so you lose, no matter what!

While this has to do with plot, it doesn’t necessarily include the individual characters. The individual characters can be portrayed as normal people and all the offense is with the plot. Maybe that mitigates things to some extent, maybe not.


The fact is, in today’s cancel culture, there are going to be people trolling for this stuff. In a way, they’re out looking, spoiling for a fight. Inevitably, they’re going to find something no matter what you do, if you’re unlucky enough to be targeted. Fortunately, most of that is saved for the immediacy of social media and not books. After all, who wants to take time out of their day of outrage to read a book, rather than Tweets?

Of course, I’m being facetious.

On the other hand, as an author, I want to grab the largest and most diverse audience I can. I want to be the most inclusive I can. The last thing I want to do is offend anyone, intentionally or unintentionally.

On the other hand, have I intentionally played to stereotypes? Sure, deliberately to make a bad guy bad, or to make a point. It’s not done with malice.

I know that as my own race, I cannot realistically write a main character for another race. The best I can do is portray that diversity in my secondary and minor characters to the best of my ability.

How do I do that?

I’ve been on this planet a long time. I’ve had my ups and downs, seen a lot and learned a lot.

I lived in both Spain and Turkey and have been exposed to some widely diverse cultures. I also grew up in a melting pot in Southern California. Not only that, I spent almost my entire adult life in Guv’mint service, and I’ve continually observed racial and cultural diversity as a matter of course and normalcy.

I try to bring that to my writing.


It’s very simple. When portraying people of different races and cultures I’ve learned a huge lesson that more isolated people may not realize.

No matter who or what you are, people are still people.

We all share the same basic DNA. We all share the same planet. We all share the same basic human experiences. We all breathe the same air.

Outside of a few minor cosmetic and cultural differences, we’re still basically the same.

There’s no avoiding it. We’re all human.


While you want your characters to be colorful and diverse and dynamic, do NOT forget that they are still people. Don’t get trapped into the world of stereotypes. That, my friends, is the quickest way to offend someone.

Do NOT forget that basically, we’re all the same.

Happy writing!


            Over the past few months, I’ve run across situations where not only have friends been needing advice about starting author platforms and blogs, but there have been forum questions about deadlines and things to do with creativity.

Say you DO have a recurring blog, whether daily, weekly, monthly or even annual, what happens when you reach the point when you have nothing to talk about? I very much wanted to add the adverb absolutely, but knew I’d cut it on second blush. THAT was going to be my original article for this week, by the way. However, when inspiration hits, you have to go with it.


You would think that after three-hundred plus articles since 2012, I’d have, by now, run out of things to talk about since my platform is writing. Then again, just take a gander at the page count of the Chicago Manual of Style. It doesn’t include half the stuff I talk about (like this article) and I haven’t even included a quarter of the stuff the manual talks about.

I don’t think I have anything to worry about in that regard.

On the other hand, that doesn’t mean I always have a stack of articles lined up, ready to publish. Quite often, I write these on the fly, Sunday morning, when the inspiration hits. Sometimes they come out of thin air, on-the-spot. Sometimes, I’ve been brewing them in my head from something that inspired me during the week. Sometimes it’s something that inspired me for a while, and I just got around to bringing it up. Like now.


For some, deadlines are a motivator. For me, they’re an inspiration killer.

To me, Sunday morning isn’t a motivator, it’s just my time to write. If I know I’m not going to be around my computer Sunday morning due to other circumstances, I may write ahead. There have been occasions when I haven’t been able to, and my blog articles have been late. I’ve always had something to write about.


This is the meat of the matter.

What about you?

This is YOUR issue.

You’ve decided on a subject for your blog. Say (from a recent friend), history of a certain time period.

You’ve been doing this for a while. You think you’ve exhausted that time period. Maybe you’ve been doing it so long you could write an entire thick textbook on the subject.

What to do now?


What if you’re just starting out, maybe even picked a subject, but don’t know which way to go?

First, if you’ve done it all, then maybe you should concentrate on articles on HOW to do the research itself, rather than the results. Instead of giving stories of what you found, relay to your audience HOW you found it.

On the other hand, if what you do is explain HOW you do your research, instead give results.

If you already do both, then it’s time to vary the subject matter a little and veer off the time period.

Now, say you’ve been doing this a long time, like me, for almost a decade. What about recycling some old stuff with a fresh update? What are the chances many of your new fans have actually taken the time to go back and read all of your past articles? I’d say for the most part, slim to none!

Recycling old articles with an update is a great way to give yourself not only breathing room, but a chance to resurrect subjects that may be currently relevant. I do it, especially given current events on the forums I frequent. I’ve found that I’ve covered so much, it keeps coming up again and again for fresh newbies.


The best blogs are about something informative because the subject matter is not only researchable, but it comes from knowledge or expertise you have. If you don’t have that expertise and learn as you go, it has to be a continual learning experience and you really have to be on your toes.

If it’s a creative blog, such as a serial story, it’s all up to you to create the next installment. Your readers depend on you to come up with the next brilliant chapter. If you already have the story planned out, whether plotted, or just A and B, as long as you don’t lose your motivation, you should always have something to write about until you finish the story. This is only dangerous when you get that dreaded writer’s block, or life gets in the way. That’s the other thing that happens to everyone else and causes nothing to write about.


Life can throw surprises at all of us. If you have a regular blog and your readers expect an article at a certain time, it behooves you to keep that self-imposed deadline. That means that to the best of your ability, when you know something is coming up, you should build up a stock of articles to cover that period of absence, or period of your normal writing time.

I’ve always hated the word deadline, and I don’t consider my weekly blog and Facebook posts as deadlines, per se. They’re regular posting periods for me, but I could just as easily post whenever I want to. Out of habit and to keep my followers on a regular schedule, I post the same times each week. You can call that self-imposed deadlines all you want. Since I enjoy what I do, I prefer to call them regular habits rather than deadlines.

So, in my regular habits, I sometimes anticipate when I won’t be available to write. If so, it throws my usual inspiration off. If I had something to write about already in mind, I go ahead and write it all then. If not, I may have a bit of this articles title, in “nothing to write about” for a few split seconds.

Then things will hit me.

I can recycle a myriad of old articles.

I can visit the forums and see what’s up that may inspire me.

I can just ponder a bit until something hits.

In a word, something always pops up.

I get creative.

For you, if you have to anticipate, vary your normal habits until you come up with something maybe off the usual path to write about. It may be short or long compared to your usual blog. It may break your own rules a bit. However, it may inspire you in a way you never knew existed within your brain before.

You may surprise yourself.

Happy writing!



Last week I was going to address this subject, but something else came up. Now it’s time.


Keep in mind that I’ve been writing for decades now. That doesn’t mean I write perfect. Far from it. However, I do have a bit of proficiency after all these years. In fact, my at least initial proficiency is one reason I took up this passion to begin with.

That being said, I still have to edit my work, whether it’s these weekly blogs, my book manuscripts, or even my impromptu Facebook posts.

Very little gets by me without some kind of editing.

Outside of typos, what are the most common cuts I make?



Rather than specifically define an adverb, per se, let me give you a red flag.


Yup, that’s it.

Any word that ends in an “ly” is probably an adverb. There are a few exceptions. In fact, I just used an adverb right there! In this case, I feel it’s justified.

Speaking of justified, how about the word just?

While just is an adjective, it’s well overused and can be cut most of the time.

However, back on track. When you see an “ad” as in “add” “verb”, it’s an enhanced verb. One way of looking at it. It’s an emphasized verb that quite often doesn’t add anything to the sentence.


There’s nothing like good examples.

It was a really big mountain.

Really is unnecessary. While the mountain was obviously huge, really emphasizes it and initially sounds reasonable enough. However, in writing narrative, it only adds fluff.

It was a big mountain.


Or even better.

The massive peak stood before him.

More active.

The street was completely devoid of movement.


The street was devoid of movement.


Nothing moved on the street.

I could go on and on.


In your manuscript, do a word search for just (see I used just for effect) “ly” and see what comes up. You may be shocked.

This isn’t an effort to sanitize your manuscript of every adverb, especially in dialogue. People don’t speak like narrative. That’s a whole different set of rules.

On the other hand, be careful using adverbs in dialogue as well. Consider speech patterns and realistic ways people talk.


Sometimes you’ve probably been told to do word searches for was, has been, to be etc. This time it’s “ly” words.

Next time, it may be another word.

I’ll surprise you!


Happy writing!



There’s nothing more annoying (well there are LOTs of things) than random capitalization. This is the sure sign of an amateur writer.


What’s random capitalization?

It’s the Capitalization of random words that have no business being Capitalized. In other words, they’re usually, but not always certain nouns that the author capitalizes for reasons unknown, or maybe to emphasize the word, or because the author just feels it should be capitalized. Maybe they think because it’s the title of someone, it needs to be capitalized.

The fact is that this is simply not true. The only time a word needs to be capitalized is when it’s used in reference to a proper name and certain titles.


You capitalize a word when it’s used as a proper title or name.

I once was the editor of the Observer’s Challenge. I would get input from amateur astronomers from around the country and then clean up their grammar. Quite often, they would capitalize the cardinal directions. For instance, “The star GSC409+2129 sat East of NGC2409.”

Nope, no ceegar.

It should say “The star GSC409+2129 sat east of NGC2409.”

Now, if the east was part of a proper name, that would be different.

“We took a trip to the south of France.”


Nope, because it isn’t a proper name. It’s describing a cardinal direction within France.

“We took a trip to Southeast Asia.”

That’s a proper name because it describes and named region. That named region includes several countries, mind you, but it’s a region.

“We’re heading up north.”

Nope. It’s not describing a named region.

We’re taking a vacation to South America.

In that case, it’s a named continent.

Now, let’s take another example.


When it’s used to describe a proper name, it’s capitalized. When it’s describing beings, not necessarily.

God, as in the being, is capitalized.

“I’ve always had faith in God.”

In this case, you’re talking specifically about the being.

“There is no god I care about.”

In this case, you’re not specifically calling out a particular god by name or affiliation. Therefore, no capitalization.

How about public figures?

I knew the mayor of Detroit.

No capitalization because you’re just describing a political position.

My mother went out with Mayor Dodderidge when they were younger.

In this case, it’s a title.

Brand names.

Brand names can be more tricky since sometimes brand names can be confused with the objects.

For instance, crayon is a wax colored stick for kids to draw colors on paper.

A Crayola is a brand of crayon which does the same thing.

Then there’s Fred’s English way of saying it, “kuller kranz.” That’s not capitalized either!


You can tell a rank Amateur because for some reason, they Capitalize random words for no apparent Reason. I’ve edited countless Manuscripts and have, for the Life of me, never figured out why the authors capitalized What seemed like every other word. Once in A while, they blame the software, but I have Yet to run across Software that does that.


I’ve given only a few brief examples, but there are plenty more. The Chicago Manual Of Style gives plenty more. Also, if you’re published, your editor will have certain standards they go by. Follow them.

Happy writing!



I’ve been reading a lot of icky bug (horror) lately. Unfortunately for me, a lot of it tends to be literary writing, which I cannot stand.

What do I mean by literary writing?

Endless characterization and description. In a way, I’m including description in this piece on characterization.


While I’m a huge fan of icky bug, I’m no fan of literary writing. I once read a very thick novel by a well-known but shall remain nameless icky bug author and I was so mesmerized by the lack of action, I could barely get through that draggy tome.

This was the great so and so?

You’ve got to be kidding!

Then after suffering through all that, several reviewers had the audacity to complain that they never got to know the main characters!

You’ve got to be kidding!

There was almost no action at all because this top-of-the-line author rambled on-and-on-and-on about the characters, endlessly going through trivial feelings and hopes and dreams and bla bla bla. I wanted to give up reading after suffering through that.

So, in a nutshell, and I don’t apologize for the cliché, I hated the book.


For those of you that have been reading my blog a long time, you have read my infamous quote from old cowboy actor Jack Elam. He once said that he was sick of all these movies that went into the heads of the bad guys and their feelings. “Maybe they just wanted the money.”

That’s kind of how I feel about things. I don’t like to waste a lot of time characterizing. I don’t like to spend a lot of real estate building up an entire world for a character while letting the action, the entire plot, come to a screeching halt. To me, I want the story to progress.

Why take five chapters to say something you can say in a paragraph?

Come on now!

I’d much rather leak out bits and pieces for the reader to put together as the action progresses rather than bring everything to a screeching halt while the reader has to slog through another flashback, or a sideline while I explain why the character does or doesn’t like something.

Geez, give me a break.


I’ve just read two examples of icky bug recently while I was on vacation. Both should’ve been quick reads. However, they were excruciating.



The plots were fairly simple.

The characters were not.

Each chapter would start with something happening. However, right as the action started, the author brought it to a screeching halt as the characterization started. Then for ten or more pages, he or she would then go off into la la land, describing the characters history, feelings, hopes, dreams or whatever, then at the end of the chapter, finally get back into the action.

Then in the next chapter, start doing the next thing.

Sometimes, the author wouldn’t even do that, but go right into the characterization before starting the action.

I was practically yelling “come on!” so often, my wife was wondering what was going on.

The reviews were mixed on both of these books. Some loved it, while others slammed the authors for never getting to the point.

I won’t specifically mention them because I don’t want to slam other writers and authors specifically. Let’s just say that they were not the huge writer mentioned in that other section above and leave it at that.


There is a big literary crowd out there.

There are some that are midway, so they could enjoy both.

However, there is a huge crowd of readers that like to get to the point.

For me, I get to know the characters just fine with a few sentences and a random paragraph mixed in with the action. I don’t need page upon page, chapter upon chapter to get information I don’t want while the plot stews on the back burner.

I’m not alone.


I’m a strong advocate for tight and right. Characterization does not have to be half the book. It can be done in small doses, so the author doesn’t lose sight of why they’re writing the book in the first place. Story and plot. If the story is about the character, fine. Don’t make it out to be a thriller or a mystery or something with action. Make it a character study and make it plain to the reader. If it’s a thriller, MAKE it a thriller that moves (or whatever category it is).

Characterization should be an enhancement to the story, not a hindrance.

Happy writing!



A potential way to market your book, once it’s published, is through so-called book marketing sites. There are a bunch of them.

I’ve done it before with mixed results.

Before you take the plunge, there are some things you need to consider.


You’re either a self-published author or with a small press. Numbers aren’t exactly setting the world on fire. Another issue that isn’t hepling is a lack of reviews. More on that later.

While you’ve maybe done a lot, or maybe little with your own marketing on social media or word of mouth, things just aren’t happening.

So, you want to add a bit of boost to your sales.

Hence, one solution is book marketing sites.


When I say book marketing sites, I’m specifically talking about sites that readers subscribe to. These sites feature e-books, usually Kindle, or maybe even Nook books that readers can buy with one click. These sites encourage the author to offer (but usually don’t force) their books at steep discounts.

The whole idea is to expose the book to a wide audience. The larger the web site, the larger the audience. However, the larger the audience, usually, the larger the fee.


This can be the sticking point for a lot of self-publishing and independent authors.

It can be a damned if you do, damned if you don’t type scenario.

Many of the sites require a minimal number of reviews to qualify. In other words, if your book is right off the press, forget it. If your book doesn’t have enough reviews to qualify forget it.

Another qualification is quality. This one I agree with. If it’s self-published, a crappy cover, poor editing, poor quality with see it turned down. These sites don’t want to sully their reputation with crappy books. Then again, some of them will probably sell anything for the fee. I’m just saying.


This goes back to why do it?

You want to generate sales, right?

You want to get more reviews, okay?

Let’s take the first one.

Depending on the site and their fee, there are certain things to consider. First off, don’t believe the hype on their web page! The first thing you will see is all these success stories, whether true or not.

Do the math. I took the plunge and things didn’t quite add up. For instance, I spent $25 on one site. Fine and dandy. I dropped the price of my book down to $.99 to sell more books. I think I sold 8 books. After the publisher’s take, I made a couple of dollars (small press). I generated zero reviews.

I did it once again, same price, sold I think ten books for a little more money. Almost enough for a Starbucks. I still generated zero reviews.

Not exactly like the booming sales expectations of the endorsements touted on the web page!

On the other hand, I also maybe got a few fans for the next book. I did sell a few, however I still got no reviews on that one either.

What did it do to my Amazon sales ranking?

It skyrocketed for a couple of days, then slowly plunged once again.

It wasn’t enough to take me into an elite category, but at least the number changed for a while.

In the end, was it worth it?

To me it was. Sure, math-wise, I lost money, but sales wise, I may have converted a few more people. Time will tell.

As of yesterday, as you read this, I’ll have tried another site with a different book. I won’t know any significant results for a while, but we’ll see if it results in anything different.

As of today, the day before I post this (Monday), my book sold at the normal list (Kindle) price. I maybe sold a couple as my sales ranking leaped up into the thousands. Sure, it never set the world on fire and of course, I didn’t make my money back. Then again, just maybe I made a few more fans, especially considering this particular book is the first in the series and is going to be just prior to the launch of the second one. Finally, I gained a review! Yes, lo and behold, out of all of that, regardless of the math, I gained one new review. A five star one at that. The problem is that while the number is there, the review isn’t. That’s an issue for another article.


Book marketing sites, at least the ones I’ve run across so far, deal exclusively in e-books. They all have a high readership, which exposes you to a large number of people who may or may not have an interest in your book. The sites all push for pricing your book from cheap to free, but you can still charge what you want, sometimes at a slightly higher fee.

The math almost always doesn’t add up, but once in a while, some lucky bastard strikes gold, at least according to their own marketing data. I cannot seem to find any reliable reviews on the marketing sites themselves.

The qualifications vary from site to site. The fees vary from free to almost a thousand dollars. You heard me right…a thousand dollars.

Keep in mind that regardless whether you are on a budget or not, marketing is going to cost something. If you want to sell your book, you have to do it somehow. This is one avenue, especially now with COVID going on and no personal book signings on the table.

So, folks, another option on the table.

Happy writing!


            I could’ve called this Reviews Revisited. After all, I’ve broached this subject multiple times here at Fred Central. However, Revisited doesn’t quite cover it. Again, is a better word because reviews are the lifeblood of an authors marketing world, as explained below.

Amazon has now made it even harder. Somehow the software geniuses at the site have now decided, in their ultimate wisdom, to start cutting “irrelevant” reviews. While you may see an author has 20 reviews, only five of them may actually show for reading.


Now, to top that off, apparently, you can rate a book with just the star rating and no narrative. While I welcome a five star rating, it would be nice to know why they liked the book. The same if they’re allowed to post a one star rating.

No idea what that’s all about but they seem to be either cutting down on space, or their new algorithms have been randomly cutting what their filters consider either offensive, irregular, or somehow incestuous material. I’m purely guessing here.

So, with some editing, I want to emphasize, once again, how important reviews are to the author and go over some do’s, don’ts, and some preaching to the choir.


When it comes to marketing your book, one of the most difficult things to obtain are independent reviews. When you’re a total unknown, one of those brass rings you have to grab for are independent reviews. I’m not talking about “paid” ha ha “independent” reviews. I’m talking about legitimate and honest independent reviews by people you don’t know who actually read the book and either like it, think it sucks, or somewhere in-between.

The whole point is to get independent feedback from the real world. You want that feedback, hopefully good, of course, to help sell your book. After all, “word of mouth” is one of the best ways to sell something.


To me, there’s something inherently dishonest about paid reviews. Okay, the “reviewers” can go ahead and say they’re a business and they have to eat. On the other hand, you’re paying them for a supposedly “unbiased” review of your book.


Have you ever actually looked at one of those paid reviews?

I have and it wasn’t pretty.

Does the phrase boiler plate ring a bell?

A couple of them, who I won’t name, were so boiler plate, they almost mimicked a certain blatant paid reviewer I used to rail about on Amazon, one I warned you about that was an obvious fake reviewer. This “lady” if she really existed, used to take the back cover blurb, use that as her review and give the book either four or five stars. That was her review. She had like 100K reviews on Amazon, and every one of them was exactly the same format. They were all on books I wasn’t particularly happy with, by the way.

Back to the paid review sites. You go to their submission pages and they’re full of warnings and “no guarantees.” This is all the usual bla bla bla stuff about how you could be throwing your money away, could lose your book in the slush pile and may never see your review. Or, if you did, it may be up to a year before it ever shows. Also, there would be no guarantee of a good review.

Ahem…once again, go right to the boiler plate. I looked and looked and of all the boiler plates, there might be a single sentence attached to the standard boiler plate that varied to tell the truth about the book. Those single sentences didn’t vary much. So, if the book really sucked, I guess it never made publication and was culled. Those are the ones that got “lost” in the shuffle, or never made the “no guarantee” cut.

Only the good reviews or at least the better ones made the cut.

Now, you may ask, what was the boiler plate the review was based on? I can’t give you the exact words without giving the web sites away, but they were all customized to each genre, let’s just say that. If it was fantasy, it was about the beasts and wizardry. If it was western, it was about the boots and cows and so forth. If it was romance, it was about the whatever romance is about. Every review on each genre page was the same except for one sentence that actually applied to the book!

So much for paid reviews.


These are the gold, especially to the new and struggling writers. Unfortunately, to the new and struggling writer, these non-paid review sites can be just as struggling and unknown as you are, and their viewership can be a few to non-existent.

However, you’re more than likely to get a more specific and honest review. The good with the bad?

Obtaining a meatier review on a web site that nobody sees doesn’t get much promotion potential does it?

Well…it depends.

Who says that review has to sit there in obscurity?

What about you?

There’s always your own publicity machine, however small and limited you might be, starting out the gate. If you’re any kind of marketer, whether you get out there in the trenches, or do everything from a computer, you should at least have a few sources. How about a web site, Facebook page, forums for your genre? All of these present an avenue to trumpet your new review.

How about Twitter as well?

All of these are potential sources to repeat that review, provide a link to it, spread the word. Not only are you helping yourself, but you’re drawing more traffic to that web site. Maybe, just maybe that’ll draw more of an audience to that site and multiply exposure to both of you. The reviewer’s site gets bigger, more prominent, your review becomes more important in the big picture.

Ever think of that?

How about adding that review to a list of reviews for a publicity sheet?

One day, you may want to accumulate all these independent reviews into a consolidated package, maybe to be used for a re-print of the book.


We mustn’t forget the retailer reviews like Amazon and Barnes & Noble and Goodreads etc. Of course, you can’t copy them directly, but maybe quote lines. I did a bad review of a monster movie and the produces took one line from my review and used it out of context to tout their movie. I saw that and went what??? If they can get away with it, why not you?

Whether all of your reviews are good or bad, copping the best lines from your reviews may be a thing to do. It may be a bit shady, but you can also go the high road and just pick the best of the best of the best. Keep it true and use it to your best advantage.


The hard fact is the 99% of your readers never do a review. That’s a huge hurtle to get over. No matter how much you beg and cajole your readers, most never will review your book. You may have decent sales, but that doesn’t mean it will reflect in reviews. Besides Amazon spending restrictions, there’s the fact that some people are just readers and not writers. Then there’s the effort to actually write the review.

It all sums up to authors getting desperate and some giving in to the temptation to pay for reviews. As stated above, not a good idea.

The only real solution is in the numbers, which is in itself a damned if you do, damned if you don’t thing. Reviews help sell books, but if you don’t get reviews, you don’t sell books.

All I can say is outside of paying for reviews, do whatever it takes to get them legitimately and unpaid, wherever possible. The more the better.

Happy writing!


            This will be the fourth time I’ve covered endings in one form or the other.

Subjects have ranged from Endings in 2018, to Crappy Endings and Crappy Endings Revisited appeared in 2012 and 2017 respectively and for good reason. The ending can have a huge impact on my enjoyment of the story, and it’s the same for a lot of other people.

The reason I bring it up this time is the book I recently finished. It was icky bug. Sure, they can be practically synonymous with crappy endings where everybody dies. Just to make sure (and one reason I don’t read e-books), I always peek at the last few pages to see if the main character (MC) survives. While this is usually a good way to tell, sometimes those last few pages, especially with a quick scan and by not actually READING it, can fool you.

The day I originally wrote this, I’d almost reached the end of the book. The way the author set things up, the gang, including the MC, HAVE to die. I was already pissed. There was about a ten percent chance they might’ve survived, but the way the story went, if they did, it wouldn’t be good. As it turns out, they didn’t. I was pissed, and my review showed it with one star.

That leads me to the main gist of today’s discussion, which I breached again the last time I wrote about it.



This is the real reason that determines what type of endings one is able to tolerate. Since this discussion primarily focuses on fiction, why do you read?

We’re not talking about non-fiction because it has a pre-determined, and inarguable conclusion. You can’t change history or real subject matter unless it’s opinion or a philosophical discussion.

However, with fiction, it’s entirely up to the author to decide how the book ends. In that regard, you, as the reader decide why you’re reading.


When you read for pure entertainment, it’s all a matter of taste. The ending may or may not matter, depending on your personality. It can be a happy or a bummer ending, depending on how you swing.


Same as pure entertainment. It can go either way.


Same as the other two.


I could’ve lumped the previous three and this category together, but broke them down for illustrative purposes. Like the other categories, open to anything means the reader doesn’t mind happy or bummer endings. They don’t feel ripped off when the hero dies.


Here’s where things get a bit more complicated. I’m in this category. My whole purpose of reading fiction is to escape the real world. Unlike any of the other categories, which of course, include bits of the rest in there, as well, my MAIN goal of reading is to escape reality. I don’t want anything to do with the real world, and especially now in 2020 with our COVID mess. I want a happy ending. If the ending’s a bummer where the hero (or everyone) dies, I automatically hate the book. If I want reality, I’ll watch the news, get a college textbook, or a non-fiction book. When I read fiction, I read explicitly for a happy ending! That’s the whole point.

I don’t want to learn any life lessons, I don’t want to get emotionally jerked around. I don’t want to get philosophized up the yin yang about this and that. If some or all of those things are thrown into the mix, fine, as long as the story ends on a high note. That high note had better not be bittersweet, where the hero dies, or where there’s any kind of bummer. I don’t want to hear “well, it’s like real life.”

Real life is 2020. Real life right now is stuff like COVID!

I know very well what real life is like. I’ve certainly lived long enough to experience all that, and still see enough of it all around me every day. The last thing I want to do is read about it in a damn book! I’m trying to escape all of that!

A large number of people escaping from reality feel the same way.


This is where the negative or bummer endings really come into play. The Debbie Downer group love bummer endings. They love the big twist at the end where not only the hero dies, but everything turns to crap. They love to be shocked.

When the author turns the whole story on its head, the negative people love it. It enforces their negative view of the world. That’s why certain authors, infamous for doing this, sell a lot of books. While they have plenty of haters, they also have substantial followings.

There’s the group of people that are bored with happy. They specifically want reality in their fiction because they’re sick of happy and “unrealistic” endings. That’s not real life. They cannot stand the fantasy of happy, or simply like to switch it out once in a while.

There’s a big audience that loves to grovel in their misery.

So, if you want to grovel in your misery, suck it up and see life for what it really is, then I guess “everybody dies” is for you.


It all boils down to why you’re picking up the book in the first place. That turns around to you, as a writer, and what your goal is, and what type of audience you’re trying to attract.

Sure, everybody dies in real life. However, what IS the purpose of writing fiction anyway? It’s a chance to escape all of that for a little while. At least to me. Do I mean, nobody dies? Of course not. All I mean is that someone needs to survive. Someone you can invest in and root for needs to survive so there’s a positive payoff, a reason to close the book with a big smile on your face, not a scowl or a tear.

If you want to write the big twist and a bummer ending, a shocking ending, you’re going to draw a certain crowd. However, if you write a positive ending rather than shock value, you’re going to draw a much larger audience.

You can mix it up, but once you shock an audience, it may be hard to earn their trust back. Some won’t care, but for those that prefer a happy ending, you may lose readers. It’s hard to tell. Either way, you’re always going to have an audience.

It’s up to you.

Think of yourself as a reader and then as a writer. Sure, you have to follow your muse, but you also have to think of your potential audience and your reputation. Once you go down a certain path, it may be difficult to recover the trust.

Happy writing, and I don’t say that lightly!


            It just dawned on me how different we perceive things through words versus what we see in person. My latest book, Spanish Gold is coming out soon. Through it, I do my best to describe various places I not only visited (well, with one big exception), but actually lived a significant time. Through my words, I hope I was able to draw a vivid picture without bogging the reader down in excruciating exposition. As many of you know, I prefer action over excessive detail. At the same time, I like to convey details others would neglect. Which brings me to today’s subject, visiting historical sites.


This past weekend, we had to skip our trip to Disneyland and find someplace else to go. We decided to go the other direction. Since we didn’t want to mess with bad weather or snow, we opted for south. We chose Tombstone, Arizona, the site of the OK Corral and Wyatt Earp and all that good ole’ cowboy stuff. There were a couple of other things in the area to see as well, so we went for a self-made package deal and took in as much as we could.

Here’s the deal.

What I pictured about the place was a far cry from what I actually saw.


Let’s forget the blatant tourist trap side of things for a moment and just look at Tombstone, the reality. While it’s a vibrant and friendly little town, it’s still a far cry from the myopic images one sees in the movies, TV, and fictional books one might read. The impressions I got were completely different. Not only that, but the local terrain wasn’t even close.


I’ve enjoyed quite a few Joanna Brady mysteries from J. A. Jance. When I actually went to her hometown of Bisbee, saw the Lavender Pit (which was named after a guy, not the color), visited the mining museum, and ate at a restaurant across the street from the museum, the place didn’t look anything like what I pictured in her books! To tell the truth, it reminded me more of Weston, West Virginia, the town my wife’s family is from, except for the desert vegetation on the mountains peeking above the buildings. Plus, maybe there was a dash of New Orleans Square in Disneyland from the little park next to the museum. What I pictured in her Joanna Brady novels was, well…now when I read the next one, maybe it’ll click different.


Since I don’t read westerns, I may never have a chance for stories of Tombstone to ever click with me, unless someone writes a thriller or icky bug involving the little town. After all, the Goodenough silver mine runs underneath the town with literally hundreds of miles of tunnels (the mine tour guide told me that). That might make a good icky bug setting.


No matter how we describe things, or even show them on TV or in movies…by the way, the movie Tombstone with Kurt Russell was filmed elsewhere…people are going to see things differently.

You can use a thousand words or ten words. It’s not going to matter. People are going to draw their own picture anyway. Sure, you can bore them or mesmerize them with page after page of description, but they’re still going to fill in their own details.

Now, if you think I’m just giving this from my own perspective think of this:

“I thought it would be bigger.”

“I thought it would be smaller.”

“This is it?”

“I’m not impressed.”

“Wow! This is so much better than I ever thought!”

I rest my case. A word picture is just that, a word picture. They say a photo is worth a thousand words, but I can tell you it isn’t worth much more than that because photos are just as myopic as words in their own way. They can tell a lot, but unless you’re there, a photo can only show you what the lens is aimed at. Sure, it can be worth a thousand words, but there are so many words it leaves out, so many sensations and angles the camera can’t capture.

The only way to get that is to be there.

As authors, all we can do is our best to describe a setting and hope for the best from our readers. We’re never going to get it right. So, with that in mind, don’t even try to make it perfect. Don’t try to beat yourself or your reader up with details. Give them enough to get the idea. If it’s a real place, maybe they’ll visit one day and see for themselves. If not, no harm, no foul. In the meantime, we have to rely on their imaginations to go where our prodding leads them.

Happy writing!


            The last time I addressed this issue specifically was way back in 2012 in my article, Are You Writing A Story Or A Dictionary? I’ve addressed it since then, indirectly, in articles about the writing getting in the way of the story. I thought it worth addressing again, specifically, since it was brought up on one of the Facebook forums just last week.


I’d originally participated in a discussion on the Absolute Write Water Cooler in the Horror Forum. A participant asked if he should use a certain word to describe a gory scene involving a victim being stabbed in the eye. The word he picked was a medical term that I’d never heard of. He asked the forum if he should use that word or pick something simpler. There were several responses asking what the word meant. I gave him my philosophy, which I’d mentioned here in an earlier article.

Here’s my quote from the forum: Simpler is better. It’s best to use word economy and keep it at a sixth-grade level whenever possible. Don’t try to impress your reader with big words unless you define those words. That means extra narrative that usually slows things down, unless it’s a key plot point.

Whoa… hold the fort! The board suddenly came alive. Several responded saying that the writer shouldn’t dumb down the story for the reader. Okay, I can understand that. One responder qualified that you shouldn’t throw the dictionary at the reader, but it’s okay to throw in new words and not explain them so that the reader has to go look them up. He said he appreciated it when he had to look them up, so he figures others will too.


Jumping forward to the present, the Facebook forum had about a fifty-fifty mix of responses this time. Many went for simpler is better, if at all possible, while some said it’s up to the writer to write what he feels, and it’s up to the reader to educate themselves up to the level of the writer (or thereabouts).

How have I changed in that? Let’s look at this from a logical standpoint.

How many of you would appreciate stumbling across a word where you have no idea of the meaning? Will you stop reading and go pick up a dictionary, ask someone, or go online to find out what it means? Does the term, jerk you right out of the story mean anything? It certainly does to me, and that hasn’t changed since day one.

Look at me today, with two master’s degrees under my belt. I’m not exactly a walking dictionary but I have a fairly good grasp of English, my native language. Then again, I still don’t know a good many high-falutin’ and obscure words. Some I can imply from the context of the narrative or dialogue. Some, I don’t have a clue. So, what do I do now? If the word doesn’t jerk me out of the story, I just skip it. I don’t keep a dictionary on the table next to my chair. So, it’s not only my loss, but the author’s loss as well.

When I was twelve, I didn’t have the greatest command of the English language. If I read the Hardy Boys or Nancy Drew or Edgar Rice Burroughs, did I go to a dictionary to look up the words I didn’t know? Not a chance. Did I ask someone? Maybe once or twice. I either guessed the meaning by how the paragraph was written (like I do now), or I just ignored it. I figure that’s what most readers today are going to do if I start throwing in a bunch of fancy words in my writing.

I like to use the occasional fancy word. However, it’s usually a technical term key to the story. I always explain it either through the narrative or dialogue. Besides, if I do throw in something wonky, my writer’s group will be sure to call me on it!

As a reader, even now, when I read someone like Dean Koontz (I’m a big fan when he writes third-person), who likes to throw in the occasional freaky non-technical word without explanation, I’m not about to go running to the dictionary to figure it out. If the narrative or dialogue doesn’t explain it, I just blow it off. I don’t care that much. It’s most likely a word I’ll never use in real life or in my own writing, so who cares? Using it doesn’t make me any more sophisticated or make my two Master’s Degrees any more or less valuable, so I just move on.


Sure, it would be nice to expand my vocabulary, but once I do, who am I going to use it on? There was a guy I worked with at the AGE Shop in Spain back in the 80’s. He was a walking dictionary. Half the people in the shop couldn’t understand him, and I was among them. On the other hand, I’d love to learn Cockney slang, for a hoot, but who would I use that on?

As a writer, please consider your audience. This is especially critical to young adult, but it applies to even the older crowd. If you’re shooting for the highbrow intellectual bunch, maybe you can dazzle them with ten-dollar words, but if you’re appealing to a wider audience, KISS!

If I have to explain that acronym…NO, it’s not the band!

Once again, I’d like to make this as plain as possible:

Your job is to entertain your reader, not force education on them. It’s great to provoke thought, but much better through subtle philosophy and ideas woven into the narrative and plot, not complicated words that put up a barrier to the prose. Therefore…


Happy writing!


            This reminds me of the old warning about sending out query letters to agents. “Don’t get cute.”

By that I mean, don’t use frilly stationary, soak it in perfume, or send a tattered note with a bad typewriter key on it, coffee stained, with a cigarette burn…things like that. Agents usually don’t appreciate when the author goes into character for their query letters.

How about the book when it gets published?


This should go without saying, but not everyone is on the same wavelength. Any book that does not fit on the shelf is the simplest way to put it.

When you go to the bookstore and you see row upon row of books, and something sticks out because it looks like it doesn’t belong on the shelf, THAT’S an unusual format.

In the past few years, maybe more, the only games in town (brick and mortar bookstores) have narrowed so that nowadays, trade paperbacks are now mixed with mass market paperbacks as well as hardbacks. A long time ago, things didn’t used to be that way. Each format had their own shelves. With shrinking brick and mortar space, and variety, that’s no longer true. It’s all mixed together.

Still, when you browse the shelves and see something that looks like it doesn’t belong, it’s going to stand out.

For instance, when the shape and size of the book looks like it should be in the art department, or sewing, or maybe crafts, that’s going to stand out.

When the binding is three-ring, or spiral-bound, we have something unusual.

When it looks like it has foldouts or appears to be a children’s story in the adult fiction category, uh oh…


There can be significant hurdles to such an endeavor. First off is why? Does the story fit the unusual format? If so, can you get the publisher to go along with the format?

Another big if is will the public go along with it?

Think of this. Consider the extra expense involved in publishing something in this unusual format. Will the public be willing to spring the extra bucks for it?

Now, consider those that collect books at home. They’re going to have to figure out where to place your “masterpiece” on the shelf.

Have you considered whether this “experiment’s” really going to be a hot seller, or just a novelty that’s going to fall flat?


I just read an icky bug novel that I’ve seen on the horror shelf at Barnes & Noble a few times but have skipped for a while. The format was like an art book. It was set up as a furniture store catalog, a very familiar furniture store catalog. The difference is that the text was a highly entertaining haunted-store icky bug story. Each chapter had a heading with a piece of furniture just like out of a real catalog. I loved the story. The book was a bit pricey, but considering the format and the cost of a regular trade paperback, it was equitable. So, I broke down and bought it.

In this case, the gimmick worked. The book would still be a bit hard to shelve, as it sticks out and doesn’t quite fit with either hardbacks or trade or mass market paperbacks. Since I now only save signed copies, after having purged a whole room full of books, it doesn’t matter.

I’ve seen plenty of other gimmick books that I’ve turned my nose up at. Maybe I did that not because of the gimmick itself, but because of the subject matter. Makes me wonder if they were sellers or not.


A big caveat to this is just remember, the e-book wipes any physicality out of it. Then again, I’m not sure how the illustrations would survive. Since I don’t read e-books, I can’t vouch for illustrations to translate to that little screen.

I only personally know of one case where it worked. I just read it and seen the proof in the many reviews this book received.

It might be a bit difficult not only to come up with something original, but to get your publisher, or if your self-published, to spring for the extra expense of printing (and/or) manufacturing it.

Keep in mind that breaking the mold is always a risk. Then again, as they say, you can’t win if you don’t play.

On the other hand, don’t go through hoops looking for some freaky way to publish a book juss’ ‘cuzz. I’m not. I’ll stick to convention. I have enough to deal with already. If an inspiration hits me one day for something like this, I’ll think long and hard before I ever spring this on my publisher. If I do, I’ll have a real good reason for it. For now, I’m quite happy to keep it simple.

Happy writing!


I wasn’t originally intending on piggybacking on last weeks article, but it slapped me in the face this week.


I happen to be reading a book that did just that.

If you want to see how being a maverick can either be genius, or shoot you in the foot, read on.


You’re a new, or maybe even an established writer. You want to buck the rules, break out and start something new.

Maybe you’re emulating one of your heroes from the past.

Maybe you simply just want to do something different. In other words, throw something at the wall and see what sticks.

You’re gambling on starting a new trend that could either take off or fall flat.


No matter what “brilliant” idea you’ve ever had, it’s all been done before.

Published books haven’t been around to the masses for a long time, historically, but long enough that everything has been tried sometime. With that in mind, some books that have become classics because of the story, not the writing. Some became classics because there was no competition at the time of publication. Some became classics because they were re-written or edited so that they became readable.


The publication “industry” has learned a lot over time. Publishers and agents and writers have learned what the public wants, what readers are willing to put up with, tolerate, and what works best.

That’s not to say they won’t let authors try new things. They will, obviously.

Like in the old days of music, the old mafia guys would take a lot of weird and unusual bands and symbolically throw them against the wall to see what would stick. That’s a lot harder for some great and unusual bands to accomplish nowadays, given the rather bland state of pop music. Not as much so with books.

The best, and most tried and true formats for books are still the ones that sell the best because…and I have to go back to my mantra…

The writing doesn’t get in the way of the story.


I just finished a book by a highly qualified writer. This is his or her first novel.

The book has no quotation marks.

That’s right. The dialogue is blended in with the narrative.

I could use a series of colorful metaphors but I’ll refrain.

I could go back to the section on the why’s, but given this author’s qualifications, I can’t even venture to either guess why he or she did this, nor why this big-name publisher let the author get away with it.

I’ve found it to be a decent story, but one that’s not only flat and emotionless, but very hard to read. It’s jarring, and also full of other faults like tautologies and no point of view whatsoever.


I’ve just about seen it all.

One that’s particularly annoying is mixing points of view. Going from third to first to second, mixing tenses, changing from fast-paced to literary narrative. All of this in one book.

My favorite example is that book by a Spaniard from decades ago. I never read it, of course, because it was in Spanish. What made this one weird was because the entire 200+ page book was one sentence. I’ve mentioned this example before, but that’s right. One sentence. The only bit of punctuation in the entire book was a period at the very end on the last page.

Can you imagine trying to read a 200+ page sentence?

That’s kind of how I feel about this very annoying book I just read, though it had relatively short chapters and scenes.


Whether this book is a one-off, or your “style,” are you ready to punish your readers or alienate half your potential readers with sone weird, or off-putting style of writing? Maybe you have some high horse or artistic “integrity” you want to stick with. Fine.

Or, do you want to reach the widest audience possible?

While I’m no fan of first-person, that’s just a personal choice. If the story is written well, it’s still a popular option because it can be done well, and the writing doesn’t get in the way of the story.

As many of you know, my preference is for third limited. That’s personal taste, and it’s the most widely read and appreciated.

Also, past-tense in fiction is my preference though some are fine with present tense. I find it unreadable and irritating, but some can write it just fine and some readers are fine with it. Once again, personal preference.

Mixing and doing weird things doesn’t bode well for broadening your audience. Punishing them or making them work for their story isn’t a great way to introduce yourself either.

It’s up to you, of course, but if it were me, I’d leave these weird experiments for the writing classes.

Happy writing.


            I’ve discussed several aspects of description here at Fred Central, but this one pertains specifically to objects, sounds, smells, rather than people or locations.

Quite often on the forums lately, I’ve seen questions like “How do I describe…”

While I consider that a legitimate research question most of the time, once in a while, these queries veer into the creative realm. When it does, I don’t like answering because then it gets into writing the story for the author, which is another subject.


There’s a weird sound that’s hard to describe because it’s not something one can easily compare it to anything familiar. In more than one book and magazine article from the distant past, I’ve heard the sound a UFO makes described as like cellophane being peeled off a roll.

Have you ever actually peeled cellophane off a roll before?

If you peeled say…plastic wrap off a roll, would it make the same sound?


What about wax paper, or aluminum foil, or that new sticky plastic self-sealing stuff?

In other words, does it HAVE to be cellophane?


Smells are a good example.

The pie smelled like rhubarb but looked like apple.


How many of you have ever smelled or even know what rhubarb is?

Out of my relatively long time on this earth, while I know what rhubarb is, have seen it plenty in the grocery store, I have yet to taste or smell it (that I know of). As old as I am, I couldn’t tell you what rhubarb smells like if it slapped me in the face.

So much for that description.


It sounded like a car horn honking.

Okay, generally, that’s fine except in what context?

If that sound is critical, as in a clue in a mystery story, then which car horn?

Do all car horns sound alike?

I think not.

What model car?

European car horns sound a lot different than American car horns. European car horns are usually more of a beep than a honk.

Different model American car horns sound different.


The green house trim contrasted with the brown walls.

Maybe that’s not important in itself. However, what if it is? What shades are the green and the brown? Most writers will add in the color tones.

Now, here’s the tricky part.

How many readers know their color tones or even care?

Hunter green (a dark green).

Dark brown (how dark is the brown).

Cerulean blue (a mid-dark blue).

Ebony black (a tautology).


When you relate description to the familiar, you have to keep in mind that the familiar you are using is YOUR familiar. You have to consider your reader’s familiar. Generally, they’re the same, but not always. You can assume to a point. A lot of times when I have read a description, I assume an image in my mind that may not be what the author sees. It’s probably similar, but may not be at all. It’s my reality versus the authors.

As a writer, when we come up with these descriptions, we have to assume a certain education and experience level from our readers. What we shouldn’t do is veer too far into the realm of the bizarre.

Now, for you literary writers, I don’t even have to say this means straying into a full page or chapter description of something simple when a few words will do.


Though this one is about a person, it still holds true.

I’ve said time and again, I don’t like to describe my characters in relation to celebrities. In fact, most of my characters I don’t describe at all or very little. I’ve gone into the reasons why many times here on my site.

I made one exception and have kept it as sort of a running joke.

The hero (MC) from my Gold series, Detach I’ve described as looking like the infamous (and lucky for us) dead former leader of Russia, Vladimir Lenin, but with hair. Those that see him for the first time and are familiar with history say he sort of looks like either Lenin with hair, or some crazed biker with tattoos.

Now, I got the idea for Detach from a lot of places, but the image of him came from a factory worker I once knew of where I was working when I original wrote the manuscript. The guy, which I never knew personally, always reminded me of Lenin, but with hair. At the time, I thought it was a great idea, so I incorporated that into the story. The real guy has no idea.

Now for the clincher. Years later, when I did some research and looked up the real Lenin, I saw a short movie clip of him disguised with a wig on. I was shocked. He looked nothing like what I pictured. He looked nothing like Detach! My whole image shattered.

What did I do?


Once in a while, I still see some guy with long hair and a goatee and moustache and tattoos, and you know what? He still reminds me of Lenin. He also still reminds me of the “image” of Detach. Yet neither of them look like what the real Lenin actually looked like with hair.

How many other people have seen that short clip of Lenin with a wig on?

Probably not many unless they’re history buffs or maybe watch a lot of the History Channel.

Another thing is that I wanted my hero to be the complete opposite of what the real Lenin was like. I think I did that.


Description is in the mind of the beholder, to borrow part of a phrase.

When you describe something, it’s always best to use the most familiar way to describe something so the most people will “get it.” Maybe not everyone will, but hey, you can’t please everyone. You have to toss it out there and hope for the best. Also keep in mind that not everyone is on the same wavelength as you are.

Happy writing!


            For once, this idea just popped into my head this morning as I sat here thinking of something to write about. Often, these ideas come from whatever is trending on the Facebook forums. Not this time.

Throughout Fred Central, I’ve alluded to the influence of hobbies and other interests and their influence on your writing indirectly and directly, but have never summed it up in one place before. So now, here it is.


I’d first like to define the difference between a passion and a hobby.

A hobby is something you do for fun, like tennis, or dancing, coin collecting, or macrame. It’s something you may do once in a while, a lot, or something you do in spurts. Then it may fade for years, or you may quit it and the gear or “residue” from it may sit in a closet only to be sold at a garage sale years or decades later.

A passion is a lifetime interest. It’s not something you throw money at, only to end up, inevitably, with that closet or garage full of gear, but something that consumes your life. It’s something you live and breathe, and even if there are lulls due to unforeseen circumstances, you take it up again at the first opportunity. When you look back on it decades later, it’s a lifetime thing.


Now that the definitions between a hobby and a passion are out of the way, for simplicity purposes, I’m going to call them both hobbies from now on. To that point, with you deep into your passion over a lifetime, or deep into a “hobby” at the moment, do you reflect that in your writing?


One would think the way characters or situations are drawn, an author makes it blatantly obvious their hobbies and interests come through in their writing.

For example, in a murder mystery, the protagonist has a thing for tennis. Therefore, the story features scenes where the hero plays it at least once in every book (assuming a series), or mentions it often. One would assume the author is a big tennis fan. You go to the back of the book and sure enough, right in the bio the author states they play tennis every weekend.

What have I said before here at Fred Central?

It doesn’t hurt to write what you know.


The characters in the series always end up in some kind of cave for at least part of the story. One would think the author might be a spelunker, right?

Bad buzzer.

The author, while having a mild interest in caves, has no desire to crawl underground. When he or she was a kid, sure, they were all full of adventure and the thought of diving deep into a cave was a great idea until they actually did it. Then the flashlight went out. All the fascination went out of their great and fantastic idea of the great adventure. Decades later, while not particularly scarred for life from the experience, they’d still rather be an armchair spelunker, a mild interest in the subject, and not a real-life cave diver. You’ll never see that in their bio.


There’s nothing wrong with…in fact it’s great to reflect your hobbies in your writing.

The key is that when character building, or in fact, story and plot building, those hobbies need to be relevant in some way to character, story and plot.

In my Gold series, my interest in rock and metal plays a minor but significant role in the “coloring” of the series. Several other of my interests do as well. As for my fantasy series, Meleena’s Adventures, I confess that my mild interest in caves do as well as several other things, though that metaphor I used earlier is not my reason for not being an amateur spelunker. While that actually happened to me a few times, it was just a matter of squeezing through tight spaces, scaling drop-offs, and a general lack of enthusiasm for the overall thrill. Spelunking is a great passion or hobby for some people, but not mine. Besides, now I’m way too old to be crawling around in the dark.

Quite often, the general subject matter of plots in stories are reflections of the interests of the authors. Given spelunking, for instance, I’ve read several thrillers where the author was a spelunker as well. I’ve seen cozy mysteries where the plot was centered around a knitting circle and the author was a big knitter. Same with quilting. I’ve seen authors who were painters and the plot had to do with painting.

It’s great to use your personal knowledge from a hobby as part of your story. In that way you can be assured you get the details correct!


This is where it can get tricky.

When you use a hobby that you’re not familiar with. You come up with this brilliant idea for either a character quirk or a plot device, but you don’t have a clue about the particular hobby.

You can read up on it, research and go for broke.

The best way is to talk to someone who is deep into it.

Chat them up and learn some quirks and details that the books may not tell you. Or, they can clue you into details you may not notice because you don’t even know to look for them.

If a reader deep into that hobby notices something off, your bad. Therefore, if you can drop in a few intimate things that only an expert would know. That makes it even more realistic.

Examples are the proper or slang names for gear. What happens to your hands when you do certain repetitive motions. Sounds, smells, reactions of passerby.

Little things.


Some authors use lesser known hobbies. This can be tricky because when you do, very few people can relate to them.

I’m a deep sky visual observer and telescope maker. To the world, that’s known as an amateur astronomer. I don’t particularly like the term “amateur astronomer” because what I do isn’t astronomy, per se. Why? Because I’m allergic to math and I don’t do any science. I have a large telescope, I look through the eyepiece and I observe galaxies, nebulae and star clusters. I also record my observations for my own pleasure. I sometimes even draw them. I have no interest in taking pretty pictures of these objects. I do nothing to advance science. However, like writing, this “astronomical” thing is a lifelong passion I’ve had since 1967.

If I used that in a book, how many people could relate to that? Maybe a handful across the entire country. How many of them would even read my books?

Most of the country could not even tell if a telescope was set up correctly in a movie scene. That’s not slamming anyone, that’s just a fact.

It’s a rare hobby, or in my case, a passion.

Have I used it in my stories?

Sure, but in small doses. I not only don’t want to overwhelm my readers with jargon they won’t understand, but I don’t want to alienate them with a hobby (or passion) they cannot relate to.

Consider that when you have a hobby that is out of the mainstream.


It’s great for an author to write what you know, and hobbies are another way to add color to your story. That’s especially true if it’s a popular one. If not, I’d have second thoughts about letting it dominate character color, story or plot.

Happy writing!


            How much time does it take to write…whatever?

            This is a question that comes up a lot on the Facebook writing forums.

            When I think about it, for a beginning writer, it’s a good question. However, for those already into it, not so much.

            Before we go on, you may wonder the disparity in my two answers. I’ll get to that in a moment.


            Everything takes time, no matter what it is. Writing is no exception. It’s taking time to write this article. How much? I can tell you that the average time it takes me to write one of these articles, which average 800-1200 words is about twenty minutes.

            So what?

            That’s a big question.

            Why would anyone care?

            How about a short story of say 4,000 words?

            On average, it takes me about an hour for the initial draft.

            A novel?

            It used to take me about six months because I had plenty of extra time at my job. Now that I have to do it at home on my own, it can take up to two years.

            How many words?

            65K to 130K or thereabouts.

            Now that I’ve given you actual statistics, once again, who cares?


            When new writers are starting out, many want to know how hard it is. They also want to know how much time they must invest in something to compare with where they are.

            They also want to know if they’re spinning their wheels on something they’re working on.

            They want to know if their pace is too long or too short.

            This would seem like legitimate questions. It is, to a point.


            First off, to me, the speed in which you write isn’t a competition. It isn’t a measurement of your worth, or of how much better or worse you are compared to someone else. If you think that way, writing may not be a passion for you. It may be a sport or a hobby.

            If writing is a true passion…

            You’re going to be compelled to write regardless of time.

            If you’re looking at time because you’re worried you’re in a rut, or because you think you have a problem that needs to be addressed, that’s only natural.

            Time management can be a part of the learning process.

            However, when it’s being used as a competition process, or to measure up against someone else, here again, you’re turning it into an ugly sport instead of a pleasure and a passion. That’s not good.


            The most infamous contest, which I’ve discussed here at Fred Central before, comes up once a year and it’s a great way to hone your chops and to see if you can do it.

            On the other hand, why do it at all? Why write a full novel in a month? Why churn out something instead of taking your time, doing it right, doing it for fun instead of under pressure?

            To me, that’s once again turning it into an ugly sport.

            If you’re competitive minded, I guess that feeds your competitiveness. I sincerely hope it also feeds your passion for writing as well.

            I’ve never had even an inkling of desire to participate in something like that.

            I have my own pace and my own passion, and no speed contest has ever even entered my radar. I personally find it destructive, but that’s just me.

            If it encourages other writers, I’m all for it, even if I find it personally demotivating.


            Even though I’ve answered the technical side of how long it usually takes me to write something, the answer I give on the forums is always the same.

            When someone asks how long it takes to write this or that, I always say:

            “As long as it takes.”



            There’s no way to gauge how someone writes. Everyone’s different. You can’t standardize the capabilities of any one person. A five-hundred word essay is not going to take everyone the same number of minutes, hours, or days to write.

            It all depends on the person’s skill level, inspiration, and passion to write it.

            This is not a speed contest, like some new writers seem to think.

            This is about quality and passion.

            Why is that so hard to comprehend?

            Happy writing!


                       A question came up the other day about writing the main protagonist in the opposite sex. The gist of this question was that it was a male, and he was worried about writing a female protagonist and being too misogynistic.

            Throughout the history of writing, authors have written using protagonists of the opposite sex. It’s nothing new.

            Maybe it’s a millennial thing, but at the same time, it’s still a valid question.

            So far, I haven’t heard that question coming from female writers.


            A biggie is, of course, getting it wrong.

            A biggie is, of course, using stereotypes.

            A biggie is, of course, assuming.

            Wait…that’s a lot of biggies.

            There are a bunch of little ones too.

            What’s missing here?


            As writers, we observe things. When we create our stories, we observe everything around us. It should be a given that it must include the people! That would naturally be people of both sexes, right? Well…unless all the action takes place in a segregated setting, it’s unlikely both sexes wouldn’t be involved somehow. That’s picking at straws.

            We, as writers, must observe, absorb, and reflect what we see in our writing.

            With that in mind, we should be comfortable writing both male and female protagonists, regardless of which sex we are.



            There are still things about each sex the other doesn’t always see or understand. While males see women as complex and can never understand them, women see men as simple and predictable. Now, aren’t those two predictable cliches?

            How do you write to that?

            You can read plenty of examples in books already out there and emulate them. The problem is that many of them may or may not get it right. Or, they portray the opposite sex (from you) the way they should or you want them to be for your story.


            The world is a lot different than what it used to be in the “good old days.” Let’s not even go there.

            Let’s just say that men are not rocks and women are not weepy and helpless.

            On the other hand, no person, regardless of sex, is one extreme or the other. Everyone is full of strengths and faults and deserves to be portrayed as an individual, not a stereotype. It’s way past time that you, as an author, look past the typical and go for the new and extraordinary.

            Quite often, someone will say something like “a guy” or “a girl” would never do something like that.

            Oh yeah?

            Says who?

            “Guys don’t think like that.”

            “Girls don’t think like that.”

            On the basis of past norms, that may very well be true. However, is that so not only in today’s world, but in the world you’re creating?

            Maybe that man or woman, boy or girl would never do what you’re having them do in your story in the real world.

            Does that mean your main character isn’t being realistically drawn because you’re not of that sex?

            Does that even have value in today’s world?

            Maybe not anymore.


            This is where it gets tricky. If there is any real-world historical setting to your work, and your protagonist is the opposite sex, you’re darn right you’d better do your research and know how that character should react to the setting! In this case, your whole world has changed. You no longer have the freedom to change the actions and reactions of your opposite sex.

            When those same questions I outlined above are raised, you’d better have a very valid explanation for saying why you went against the norm. While there may be a plot-driven reason, and one or the other sex may have reacted a certain way, you’re skating on thin ice.

            Men have not always acted like men and women have not always acted like women throughout history. We have well-established societal norms that are taken for granted and expected. Yet, as history shows, that’s not always what happened behind closed doors or in the shadows.


            As a writer, when you portray the opposite sex, to do it realistically, you need to make sure you have your stuff together to make it believable or you’ll lose your readers. Justify it.

            Happy writing!



            A question that comes up often on the forums is “Do you listen to music when you write?”

            While I’ve addressed music to some extent here at Fred Central, I want to take this a step further as well.

            First, do you listen to music when you write?

            Second, does the music influence your writing?

            Third, do you name-drop bands if you’re writing a real-world story?

            Fourth, what would the soundtrack be if one of your stories was made into a movie?


            I’ve talked about this before in my articles on writing environment. From the forums and personal experience talking to other writers, the answers cover a wide spectrum.

            Some, like those who write at coffee shops, are subjected to whatever soundtrack the store plays, unless they wear their own headphones.

            Speaking of which, many writers go into their own world by wearing headphones (regardless of location) and play everything from Pagan music to disco to rap to classic rock to country to heavy metal (and a few other genres I left out).

            Others who have the capability, turn on the stereo and blast out while they write, or have it on low volume in the background.

            Others prefer the TV in the background.

            Me? Silence. I don’t even have a soundtrack in my head.


            I have enough going on in my head with the creative process that I don’t need two things going on at once. It used to be that I had jets taking off, callsigns blurting out from a radio and people talking in the background, all of which I blanked out as I wrote. Now, I’m either writing in silence early in the morning, with the occasional car going by outside, or it’s late in the day, and TVs are on in the other rooms.

            Those are my soundtracks.

            While I could be playing a CD on my computer, I choose not to for the simple fact that I don’t need a cacophony to just ignore. Plus, I cannot stand to wear headphones if I don’t have to. I had to deal with earmuffs for two decades in the Air Force, and I have to desire to relive that!


            This can be a mixed bag. When the subject or plot of the book is music oriented, of course. Most books are not, so the question is, does music somehow influence what you write.

            So far, in my experience, I’ve heard a bit of this and that. Song lyrics have inspired people with their story and plot lines. Bands have inspired certain stories either directly or indirectly.

            There are series out there where certain types of music play a significant role in defining the characters. To name one, Jazz is a significant coloring in the Harry Bosch series by Michael Connelly.

            In my Gold series, rock and metal are significant coloring.


            So far, I haven’t mentioned fantasy writing. It’s obvious certain types of music cannot play a role in a made-up world, unless the genre is urban fantasy. In that case, contemporary music is all in.

            With that in mind, and including all other genres of fiction, do you name-drop bands?

            I’ve seen plenty of bands name-dropped into stories, from Aimee Mann to John Coltrane to Dwight Yoakum to GWAR.

            In my Gold series, I drop the names of some of my favorite bands, plus a few not so favorite, mainly for shock value. It’s no secret that the original Alice Cooper Band and Lothar And The Hand People are a significant part of my series. Many of my readers are too young to even know who Lothar is and they only know of Alice Cooper, the solo artist. So be it.

            It’s the same with any author that name-drops bands. Not everyone is going to get it.

            Now, how about fantasy writers?

            Outside of urban fantasy which blends real world, when concerning hard fantasy like my Meleena’s Adventures, nope. Not going to happen. In her world, there are no bands, per se. There are probably groups of musicians, which could be considered bands of a sort. They’d be more like travelling troubadours. So far, I haven’t addressed music all that much in her world. I will eventually, as in the next book, but I can’t reveal much more about it yet.

            The same for science fiction, which all depends on the setting, which may or may not include real-world Earth.


            First off, there’s no way you’re going to likely have any influence on the soundtrack, let alone much else if your book is ever made into a movie. Time to get that right out there!

            On the other hand, one can only hope.

            Michael Connelly did it with the Bosch series. If you get big enough, anything can happen. However, for the most of us, we must dream on.

            I can see you already picking the songs.

            For me, with either the Detach or Meleena’s Adventures, I can only hope there’s some rock and roll in either one. In the Gold series, the influence slaps you in the face. As for Meleena’s world, hey, they did rock with A Knights Tale, why not Meleena’s fantasy world?

            Happy writing!


           This subject is as much for world-building as it is for color, but also for plotting.

            Do you use holidays as part of your stories?

            If so, which ones?


            Since Christmas and New Years have just passed, probably the most common ones used in books would be those two. Maybe add Easter and Halloween to the mix.

            What about the lesser used ones like President’s Day, Three Kings Day, Kwanzaa, Groundhog Day, or so many others?


            There are basically two reasons to use holidays.


            In world building, the setting is important. As a writer, you want to build, populate, and color your world as vibrantly as possible. You do this by building it from the ground up. That not only includes the environment such as the climate, geography, population, and customs, but also the time of year and for the added touch, local or even national holidays.


            Your story may center around a holiday as part of the plot. A crime thriller may be due to a robbery or a murder on Black Friday. Or, a horror story may be set on Halloween (and no, not THAT one).


            In a fantasy setting, the same thing applies to both color and plot. The difference is that you, as a writer, have the freedom to make up your own holidays.

            Say what?

            That’s right. You’re not restricted to any norms or traditions of our real world. In your made up world, which you’ve possibly created from scratch, you have the freedom to make up holidays based on anything you want.

            The only catch is: It has to make some kind of sense, and you need to stick with your own rules!

            The above rule is a mantra I repeat often here at Fred Central when it comes to fantasy. In a made up world, while you have certain freedoms, the only real-world constraints need to be that #1 whatever it is has to make sense in some way the reader can understand, and #2, once you make this thing up, you need to stick with your own rules throughout the story or series. IF you ever bend or break those rules, you’d better have a good reason and be prepared to explain it to the readers through the narrative or dialog, once again back to #1, SO IT MAKES SENSE!


            Absolutely not. In fact, many stories never refer to them, even in an oblique sense. There’s no mandatory requirement to do so. However, it’s fun to add in a holiday and they’re another color on your artistic writing palette.

            The biggest rule to remember is to use them correctly.

            That sounds rather obvious but if you think about it, even something as simple as Halloween, Easter, or Christmas can be screwed up if the author uses it improperly.


            The writer makes an offhand and improper remark about some aspect of the holiday or gets some detail wrong.

            This is especially true if the author decides to throw a little historical or political perspective into said holiday.

            Here we go…


            If you’re going to use a holiday, make sure you use it correctly and don’t spew propaganda or improper rumors or religious biases.

            There, I’ve said it.

            There’s nothing that can jerk a reader out of a story than to use a real-world holiday in a story and have the author add in a personal bias with something factually untrue. Or, a religious or political opinion that is highly polarizing, regardless of any real or perceived truth.

            I’m not talking about something like the brash commercialization of what used to be the innocence of youth or tradition for a holiday. That almost seems to be a universal truth nowadays. I’m talking about religious or political biases that teeter or veer into polarization and browbeating.

            Logic arguments about the origins of holidays border on political or religious diatribe, which can alienate the reader. This is getting into facts versus fiction.

            It’s best to use holidays at face value. Maybe a snarky remark is okay and leave it at that. Diatribes on the other hand distract from the story and show the author’s bias. They jerk the reader out of the story, even if the diatribe is in the context of the character, which can be borderline author intrusion.

            The exception could be in a fantasy world with a made up holiday, unless the holiday is a thinly veiled real-world one.

            Then again, it’s your story, so you be the judge. It all depends on how many readers you want versus how many you want to piss off. The fact is that you’re not going to convert the already converted and are only going to piss off those that don’t agree with you. Plus, maybe (probably) you’ll lose some potential new fans.


            Holidays make for great color in your world, whether used as such or going full out as a plot device.

            Use them wisely.

            Happy writing!



            The debate about writing what you know or not comes up quite often. I’ve discussed it directly or indirectly here at Fred Central in numerous ways, but now is the time to address it directly.


            When writing your big lie, it’s always best to stick as close to the truth as possible.


            Simple. The closer to the truth it is, the less likely you are to get real details wrong.

            This line is one used quite often in fiction, and it applies just as well in real life. When we write a fictional story, it is, after all, a big lie. It’s a made up story. If it’s not fantasy, in which the entire world is made up, it sticks to certain rules that one must know or adhere to for the story to come off as believable. If not, the reader is going to scoff at the page and likely put the book down. The reader is going to think the author doesn’t know what they’re talking about.

            Your big lie is busted.

            Therefore, when you construct your illusion of the truth, you need to get your facts straight. Following this philosophy, it’s much easier, and better, if you at least somewhat know what your talking about coming out of the gate.

            To save on time, effort and research, if at all possible, it’s best to start with writing something you know.

            Whether it be time, place, talent, profession, or whatever, the more you already know, the more realistic the lie is going to be. The better your story is going to be.


            There’s a faction out there that’s of the philosophy that when you construct your big lie, it’s all about the research.

            Research research research.

            You should write about what you don’t know so that you challenge yourself, you force yourself to get better educated, to delve deep into the unknown, to learn new things, to adventure into new horizons.

            This way, you can craft a much better and mor exciting story because you’re picking up the energy of discovery and translating that to the page.

            Plus, you aren’t restricting your creative freedom to what little you know right now.

            A great philosophy if you have the time and money.


            As for right now, I personally own the luxury of having lived in a lot of places I can use for my thriller and icky bug novels. I have a wealth of ideas brimming over. I’m in no short supply. I’ve lived the places I want to write about. Therefore, my actual cost of research is minimal compared to someone more homebound and wanting to branch out.

            Would I want to write what I don’t know?

            Fat chance. I have so many ideas for places I already know, I probably won’t run out in my lifetime.

            What about you?

            For those of you with more limited travel or means, you have to follow either your inspiration or your limits.

            You can do either or both together.

            If you write what you know, all of your work can center around one location, the subject matter involving one occupation or hobby, or be from one genre.


            If you want to write what you don’t know but are homebound or have no means of travel, you can challenge yourself and leave your inspiration open and travel through others.

            If you want to write about another location, time, occupation, or hobby, it boils down to a good internet connection, a good phone, library, and communication skills.

            For instance, do NOT get frustrated when you read the bibliography, final thoughts, or web site of some of these big-name authors who took six months to research a thriller. So and so author traveled to exotic locations, swam with the dolphins, went to remote Nepalese temples, trekked into the remote Amazon, bla bla bla just to write a few paragraphs of detail into their story.

            It’s nice if you can flaunt it.


            You don’t need to do that to get the nuances of your story.

            You can do the same thing with books, the internet, letters, phone calls, etc.

            Or, the most universal of all…

            Be vague.


            Everyone has had some experience going somewhere or doing something. If you have a desire to write, whether you desire to write what you know, or challenge yourself to write what you don’t know, the means are out there for both.

If your inspiration takes you to unknown places for you, don’t be afraid to reach out. Once you get there, that mental trip may change your inspiration. Once you get the facts, you may decide that it wasn’t for you after all, especially when reality sets in. On the other hand, maybe the trip into the unknown inspires you even more.

            Then again, when you already HAVE the experience, the skill, the inspiration from something you’re familiar with, why not use it rather than let it go to waste? Don’t let someone talk you into forging a new path you don’t need to take.

            Whatever you decide, don’t let either writing what you know or don’t know become a roadblock.

            Happy writing!


            An interesting subject came up the other day on one of the Facebook forums. It was about made up words. The gist of it was how the English language is ever expanding with how invented words are being added to our language and whether authors should make up their own.

            Of course, the “opines” varied, from “sure” to “you shouldn’t mess with English.”

            For those that know me, I’m definitely in the “sure” camp. I not only continually play with words, but make them up, make fun of words, subvert them, distort them, invert the first letters, and change them in all sorts of ways.

            This doesn’t always translate to the written page, of course. I DO have my practical limits, but once in a while, something might sneak into my published prose.

            Now, as for my everyday chatter, either oral or written, no holds barred.


            The English language has 170,000 to 220,00 words already available for use (if you include the obsolete ones). Why not make better use of the more obscure ones?


            First off…many of them are obscure for a reason.

            Try unpronounceable, or close to it.

            Try obscure meanings.

            Try obsolete meanings.

            Try college level.

            Try upgraded by simpler or more direct meanings.

            If you’ve been a reader here at Fred Central, have you ever heard me use the phrase, “throw the dictionary at the reader?”

            There you go.

            There are some authors that love to do this. While these complex and college level words are legitimate and right there in the dictionary, they’re also little used, and come off as snooty and pretentious to the average reader. Sure, nothing wrong with whipping a little education on the “unwashed masses.” However, some words go into obscurity for a reason.


            There’s nothing wrong with bringing in the new and throwing out the old, to an extent. While the root of the language is the basis to call it what it is, in this case, English, terms and definitions can vary based on changing times. That’s called evolution.

            Nobody in 1500 had likely ever heard of the word skyscraper.

            Just like nobody in 1700 had ever heard of a jet or jetsetting.

            Therefore, new words need to be added to the “dikshunerry” all the time.

            That, of course, does not account for deliberate misspellings. That’s just me, like wyberry, or dun didded.

            That’s me, playing with words.

            Those words I sometimes use in my personal communication, but unless I have an opportunity to use one in dialogue someday, they’re not appropriate for narrative.


            When, in the course of your book, whether fiction or non-fiction, you make up a word, you’re not committing a major crime against humanity. You’re making up a word.

            That’s it.

            They key to doing so is that you must define the word and have a good reason for doing so.

            What good reason?

            This is the sticking point.

            Defining good reason can mean a lot of different things.

            To me, what it means is that it’s important to the story. That’s it.

            It can be technical, key to the plot, or no other reason than humor. Those are all good reasons.

            If your book becomes a best-seller and the word catches on, guess what? You may be the source of a new word in the dictionary!


            I’ve played with words since I was a little kid. Maybe that’s why I’ve had such an easy time coming up with names for creatures, places, characters, plants and such for my fantasy world in Meleena’s Adventures. Same can be said for any of my fiction writing. When I need a fictional technical term, guess what? Boom! Off the top of my head.

            I love to make fun of the English language, or any language I’m exposed to. I love to play with words, manipulate them, and change them around.

            Therefore, it only comes natural that I can make a mess of things when I want to.

            On the other hand, to do that, it means I also have to have an intricate knowledge of English to be able to make fun of it and manipulate it, at least to the level I do.

            I couldn’t write what I do with out that knowledge. I can’t say that for other languages, of which my skills are much more rudimentary.

            I’ve picked up a lot from listening to kids, or recalling kid talk from when I was one back in the day. Those years being a kid, or raising them has provided a wealth of words to covet.

            Listening to groups of people around the country has provided the same thing. Every region and sometimes even neighborhoods has their own wealth of variances and quirks of the English language, full of gems to be exploited.

            Now these gem words just need the Fred touch to be utilized.


            Some authors are dead-set against made up words, and they have a point.

            We already have plenty in our language.

            On the other side, our language is evolving all the time as times change. Obscure words get shelved for a reason. New ones take their place to keep up with current trends.

            Pick one.

            Happy writing!


            I guess I should break this down a bit, right up front. There are writers that are plotters and there are writers that are pantsers. I’m in the pantser category.

            What this means is that I don’t spend days, weeks, or even months plotting out my story before I ever type a line. The sole planning of my story is that in my head, I figure out A and then B and then the title right up front. After that, my plotting is dun didded.

            That’s it.

            Case closed.

            Upward and beyond (to quote someone ((Galaxy Quest??)).

            Following an outline, would turn the writing into a task rather than a pleasure. Consequently, it would suck all the life right out of the whole process, though I’d still somewhat enjoy it because it IS writing. Instead, I follow a seat-of-the-pants approach.

            In other words, I write freeform, with the goal being B, or, the end of the story.

            As soon as I start from A, the adventure begins. It’s a pure pleasure.


            It’s no secret I love to write. Here I am, Sunday morning, everyone else is asleep and what am I doing? I’m writing this. I could be sleeping, or reading a great book (the current one is by Preston & Child, two great authors). Instead, I’m plonking down another Tuesday article.


            Because I love it.

            I this case, it’s not one of my novels, or a short, plotted story.

            It’s a weekly blog article.

            It’s still writing.

            When it IS one of my plotted stories, when I sit down to write, I go off into my own world, my own adventure.

            It’s hard to describe what it’s like.

            It’s a pure pleasure.

            For some that profess to love writing, it’s a torture, an effort, a source of agony.



            Writing can be other than a pleasure for a multitude of reasons.

            A very common one is that a person gets an inspiration to be a writer. They have great ideas for stories. The issue is that when they sit down to put it to practice, the mechanics of the actual writing don’t pan out the way they think it will.

            Uh oh…

            Another one is that a writer has certain chops but they’re trying to emulate their tortured artist hero. This person is of the impression that every word, every phrase is pure torture and that’s what makes their output a great work, when and if they ever get done with it.

            Another one is of course, most people. They want to be a writer, but they haven’t yet developed the skills to be able to sit down and just write. This is the most common. They know they don’t have the skills yet, are willing to learn, but get too hung up in the mechanics of it to enjoy the process. This is similar to the first one above.

            Another common one is someone who’s good at writing, but doesn’t get immediate results for their effort. They expect a big bang for their buck, and have allotted a certain amount of time to be a success. When it doesn’t pan out, the virtual tears come. They like writing, but their main motivation is money, rather than pleasure. They’re out to make a living at something they love doing. There’s nothing wrong with doing both. It would be great to be able to do both, but this is a very difficult bid’ness to break into and very frustrating to most, like any other profession. It can stifle pleasure and creativity in a short time.

            Those are a few examples of typical writers, but not all-inclusive.


            I have described my writing processes numerous times here at Fred Central, but I can only stress that when I write, when I create my stories, my “big lies,” to be facetious, I go to a different place. I’ve done that since I was at show and tell in kindergarten and told the class my sister went down the drain at bath time, or showed the ladies in the cul-de-sac my “polka-dot-sewer” drawing. I’ve never been at a loss for strange new worlds, and now I have an outlet.

            What makes it easier is that once I seriously took up writing, I discovered I actually had the chops for it. When I sat down at the keyboard and hammered out The Cave, way back in 1995, I discovered for myself that I could pull it off. I finished that novel, as crude as it was, in about three months. This was in the evenings after work.

            At this moment, I am now editing it. I have been quite surprised and shocked at how this very first attempt is not nearly as bad as I first thought it was. I’d never had any intention of publishing it until I found the original manuscript and scanned through it. Then I decided to go through it, sentence by sentence and clean it up. It’s slow going because my chops have improved immensely, but story-wise, it’s not that bad, and I think I have something that might just work.

            When I wrote it, I went off into another world. I did not stop to think, I just did. Right there and then, I figured A, the start, and B the ending. I even had the title which I figured while I was contemplating B. After that, it was a matter of going off into my little world and typing away at my very crude computer.

            Somehow it worked, despite the quirks of the software, and whatever other obstacles I had to deal with at the time. I went off into my dream world and because I could type almost as fast as I could think, which admittedly can be rather slow at times…kept me at a rhythm and pace that worked.

            It’s almost impossible to translate that feeling to a non-writer, or even to some of you that don’t possess the skill to write that fast, or that on-the-fly. I take my ideas and just spill them out. That’s it.

            Pure joy and pleasure of creating.

            There’s no high greater than that for me.

            THAT’S why I’m a writer.

            How about you?

            Happy writing!


            The other day, I got my second COVID shot, and I must say, it kicked my butt!

            On top of that, I’ve been off the entire week because we’ve had house painters here. That meant a lot of disruptions, not only because of the painters themselves, but arranging to let the doggies out among other things. While it sounds like the perfect opportunity to write, think again.

            It turns out I did some major reading and napping. Not exactly a productive week. During that time, I managed to finally file away some paperwork I’d sorted the week before, write my usual blog and Facebook articles, and come up with the title for the A and B I’d already formulated for book #4 of the Meleena’s Adventures series. However, the day I decided to start Chapter 1, guess what? I kept getting interrupted, plus I didn’t want to miss my COVID shot appointment.

            That was Thursday. Then good old Friday came around and that shot kicked my butt! I spent the day under a blanket in my chair, barely able to move, let alone write or do anything else except do the dog routine and a final walkaround when the painters finished.

            The sum accomplishment of my new book #4?

            The title, the header, and a blank Chapter 1.

            Then that all made me think.


            It’s okay for everyone to take a day or two when one feels sick for a cold, flu, or even mild COVID, for instance.

            What about chemo therapy?

            What about extended bouts of MS or Lupus, or worse?

            As crappy as I felt yesterday (as I write this draft, I still don’t feel 100%), it was, and is a struggle to write what I’m doing now.

            Just think of someone in a worse state.


            This is another reason I’m against self-imposed deadlines. While some people need them to stay motivated, I always ask the question, why do you need motivation?

            If writing is really a passion for you, that passion IS your motivation, not the other way around. If you’re a serial procrastinator, well…I have trouble computing writing as a passion versus writing as a hobby. I’ve been slammed before by the writing community for suggesting the writer take up knitting or tennis, or something that takes less effort and stress…something more immediately satisfying…something that takes less patience and longevity for a payoff.

            Placing a self-imposed deadline on your writing turns it into an ugly contest…a sport. It puts undue stress on something that should be a pleasure, a passion, a love and not an agony and a stress.

            What happens when you get sick and don’t feel like writing?

            That old self-imposed deadline looms. So, you aren’t feeling good and don’t want to write, but now you have a deadline and you freak out. Guess what? You fall apart.

            What was supposed to be a pleasure becomes torture.

            Are you after that tortured artiste thing?

            I sure hope not!


            I’ve certainly had my down times. I’m like everyone else. However, that’s not to say I wasn’t thinking about writing. I WAS thinking about writing. I just wasn’t executing because it was too much mental and physical effort. Like yesterday. Even today, as I type this, about now, I’m almost rushing because I’m running out of steam. Geez, my day hasn’t even started yet. At the same time, I feel a lot better than yesterday so there IS hope. I have a couple of major tasks ahead of me to finish up the house painting thing, now that the crew is gone. I could probably delay these tasks again, but I’m going to suck it up and get them out of the way. No self-imposed deadline here. I just want them out of the way.

            What about my next novel #4 in the Meleena series?

            Patience Grasshopper.

            There’s still a good chance I won’t even touch it the rest of this weekend.

            I have no deadline, self-imposed or otherwise.

            As it turns out, the next morning, Sunday, I managed to squeeze out a page and a half before I got interrupted again. Maybe tonight, Tuesday, after I post this article, I can finish that chapter. Who knows?


            It’s simple as that. If you don’t feel like writing, don’t.

            If it’s a true passion, you’re going to find yourself sneaking in a sentence, paragraph, scene, chapter or two when you get to it.

            You may be doing a blog article, just communicating with friends on Facebook, writing letters to friends, or nothing at all for a while during a rather harsh spell or treatment.

            Don’t fret the little stuff. Don’t stress not writing.

            Get yourself well then return to writing with gusto. It may even be therapy when you get right down to it.

            Your stories aren’t going anywhere. Nobody’s going to steal your ideas. Remember, your ideas have already been done by someone else a hundred times, just not with your unique vision and voice!

            Relax and get better.

            Happy writing!


            Every writer has other writers they tend to idolize, emulate, admire, copy, give a nod to, or at least are somehow influenced by. For many, it’s a host of authors.

            My list is long. I’ve mentioned them numerous times here at Fred Central.

            If you go to the thank you and dedication pages of many a book, you’ll often find mentions of these authors. Some authors don’t, while some writers, who are not published yet, may or may not tout their favorites.

            Nobody starts writing from a vacuum.


            Many writers develop styles that emulate their favorite writers. It comes naturally. After reading obsessively and enjoying the writing of someone for years, maybe decades, when one takes up the passion (or hobby) of writing, it’s a natural progression to be influenced by those you admire. It could be one writer or a blend of many.

            I’ve seen a lot of blends, such as myself, which, depending on which genre I’m writing, can emulate, to a degree, everyone from Clive Cussler to Carol Davis Luce to Lester Dent, to Edgar Rice Burroughs to Franklin W. Dixon, to R. Karl Largent, to well…the list goes on.

            I just read a book not long ago that emulated the style of Cormak McCarthy and I almost stopped reading. I ended up finishing it, but the lack of punctuation was so off-putting, I struggled to get through it. It was a horrible experience.

            On the other hand, I’ve read plenty of novels influenced by my favorites, such as Clive Cussler or Lee Child, or Preston & Child, or James Rollins that were outstanding. These novels kept me glued to my seat.

            I’m sure the same could be said for genres I don’t read.


            This gets into the realm of being a clone, something writers worry about all the time.

            The thing about copying or emulating some other author is that unless you use the exact same names and exact same plots, or exact same devices, even though you may be emulating a favorite author, you’re still telling a story in your own voice.

            If you recall from past articles here, I’ve said repeatedly that every plot and every possible story twist has been done before. What makes them unique is that no matter what way you tell it, it’s in your voice and your voice is unique. THAT’s what makes your story yours. Not the plot, or the trope or the cliché, but the VOICE.

            You can emulate a favorite author all you want, but as long as you choose your own path and don’t try to copy their book exactly, you can own your own story.

            That, my friends, has been going on since books first existed.

            Some schmuck wrote a story.

            Then another schmuck wrote that same story with a twist.

            Then another schmuck wrote that story again with another twist.

            Mix and match, so on and so forth.

            What made each one different?



            It’s great to emulate your favorite writers.

            It’s not great to copy your favorite writers.

            Unless you rewrite their novels and add a new title, you can’t help but add your own outside influences and make them your own. That voice of yours makes them a different flavor in the mix, something unique.

            When someone asks you what your book is about, you can say it’s about such and such and it’s similar to so and so. That’s it. You don’t need to add that it’s not a clone of so and so, it’s just similar, or in the same style. You shouldn’t have to make that distinction.

            I write Agatha Christie type mysteries.

            I write Clive Cussler type adventures.

            I write Lee Child type thrillers.

            I write Zane Grey type westerns.

            I write Nora Roberts type romances.

            You can say you’re not like anyone else, but more than likely…

            Happy writing!


            Everybody, especially publishers, are always looking for something different.

            Authors, writers, and readers get bored with, tired of, the same old same old.


            Well…depends on who you ask.

            This leads to a lot of experimentation. Sometimes it works and sometimes it doesn’t.

            What it usually boils down to is that, especially publishers tend to push writers and authors to do something different, yet when they do, these same publishers resoundly reject them as too off the beaten path and “not marketable” or “too radical” or “too something.”

            Say what?

            They want different but then they reject it right off.

            In other words, they can’t be pleased.

            It’s like they’ll know it when they see it, but they rarely, if ever do.


            You, the writer and/or author, come up with a brilliant idea for a story. It’s either in the way you market the book, the way you write it (as in style), or something about the plot.

            Since it’s more than likely fiction, you have to deliver a finished product before an agent or publisher will even talk to you. There are some instances where you can query an unusual idea and may get a yea or nay response from a “potential” agent or publisher. However, once executed, there are quite often a lot of second thoughts, plus due to the turnover rate, the person you pitched to may not even be available anymore.

            How are you supposed to market something like that?

            Maybe you should try a test audience.

            The barriers start to evolve.

            Need I say more?


            Like I alluded to at the top, it can be several things.


            The book could be presented in a unique format such as a catalog, which was done successfully in one case I just read. It might be a coffee table book. It might be in a plain brown wrapper and be about sex or have a sex-related or some other sensitive plot. I covered that in a recent article.

            The problem with this is shelving it and making it alluring to the reader. Having it mistaken for something else.


            The plot could have any number of twists, convoluted and turned back on themselves.

            The problem with this making it too weird or complicated for the average reader to either follow or enjoy. Plus, you have the issue that just about everything has been done before.

            Writing style:

            While not new, this is something that is especially tricky. Writing without punctuation. Writing with no point of view. Mixing point of view all over the place. All dialogue. No dialogue.

            No paragraphs. All paragraphs.

            These weird formats and styles can turn off any number of readers.


            Oh boy, here we go.

            There is for the writer that writes purely for themselves and could care less if anyone reads their work. We all are to some extent, a little or a lot. At the same time, the majority of us would love to have others enjoy our work.

            When a writer refuses to bend to any convention at all, because it’s their art, they expect other like-minded individuals to “find them.” If not, they’re okay with that. In this case, the unique twist is that they write what they write, and could care less for convention, whatever that is. Publishing and the world is wrong. Eventually, the world with discover their genius and flock to them.

            Ever hear of the starving artist?

            The caveat of that is my old tired but true saying, “lightning in a bottle.”

            It can happen, but the odds are extremely high against you.


            I’ve personally been reading for sixty plus years and have seen plenty examples of the twist. Some I’ve enjoyed. Most I have not. Some that I’ve enjoyed were not really unique at all. They were reflections on something already done before but just in a different voice.

            What goes around comes around, again and again and again. When the publishers want something different, it really boils down to they want something different but not too different.

            Go figure.

            You’re next big unique twist, whether it be plot, format or style, may be the next big thing since sliced bread.

            Just remember, the slicing of bread hasn’t changed all that much since it was created. Just the thickness, if that says anything.

            Happy writing!


            I’ve talked many times about the muse. Some of us writers have them and some don’t. Or, some only use the muse when convenient either as a temporary inspiration or an excuse when we don’t want to write or are too lazy to get around to it.

            The other day, I was thinking about the re-opening of Disneyland. Not Disney World, but the original, to me, the “real one” here in nearby Calee’fornia. It’s been closed for almost a year, and given the state of affairs with the pandemic, might not reopen until later in 2021, if at all.

            As I’ve said repeatedly, Disneyland is one of my favorite muses. It’s certainly not my only one, if I were to say I have any at all, but it’s certainly one of a multitude.

            Then I thought, “what if a writer lost their main muse?”


            This is, of course, hypothetically speaking.

            As an artist, regardless of medium, many say they get inspiration from a muse. That muse is the root of all (or most) of their art.

            All of a sudden, that pipeline is cut off for whatever reason.

            Does the artist shut down after that?

            Does all that talent and inspiration fade away?

            Is that muse so key to their creativity that they lose it?

            In some instances, historically speaking, that has happened. Then again, many artists have gone through many muses in their lifetimes, some more notable than others, while the general public is often never aware of it unless they’re huge fans who dig deep into the lives of these people.

            I’m asking that question to you, the writer because I sincerely hope you haven’t hinged your creativity all into one single thing.


            If you think about it, most big-time artists have lost a muse or two over time. A lot of those muses were people, and of course, people change, pass away, or whatever. Therefore, an artist using someone for a muse is doomed to eventually lose that person. The same might be said for a location given development or other circumstances like weather or natural disasters.

            Has this stopped most artists?

            As I alluded to in the last section, in a few cases, maybe, but in most, nope.

            Speaking of our medium, if you’re a good writer, you draw inspiration from many places, and no “muse” is going to get in the way.

            Back to the point others had touted over and over again. A muse is just an excuse for being lazy and not getting off your duff.

            Am I that hard core?

            Not really, because there may be other extenuating circumstances for not wanting to write. Or, maybe writing isn’t a passion. Or, maybe you never should have started a particular story or series. Or…maybe you have physical or mental ailments keeping you from continuing.

            A host of reasons may be your issue, that have nothing to do with a muse.


            The best way I can illustrate is repeating my example.

            While Disneyland has always been a huge source if indirect inspiration, and I mean, really indirect, it is by no means the only one. I don’t have a single muse and never have had only one. When I go there, do you have any idea where I get the most inspiration from?

            There are four places that give me that shot of adrenaline that has nothing to do with physical thrills. They are: Mr. Toads Wild Ride. My earliest memories of Disney are when my dad took me on that ancient ride in 1957, just after the park opened. I still appreciate it as much today as I did as a young whippersnapper.

            The Haunted Mansion. The ride is way corny and not the least bit scary, even if you consider the park still kicks plenty of guests out for scattering loved one’s ashes along the tracks. I love the pseudo-creepy atmosphere. I still get a kick out of that old pipe organ used in 20,000 Leagues Under The Sea and the dancing holograms.

            Pirates Of The Caribbean. Even after politically correcting it, that river ride still rocks. Nothing more to say about that one.

            Finally, the exit to the Winnie The Pooh ride has some benches. I like to sit there while the rest of the family goes into the candy store next to them. Behind me, some schmuck in a costume dressed as Tigger does autographs and photos with the kids. I sit there and take in the gorgeous trees surrounding me and listen to Splashwater Mountain across the way. That little spot, buried in the midst of the park, is pure paradise.

On the other hand, maybe I should say that the world is my muse and leave it at that because not only is it, but I can’t leave out Spain and Turkey or many other places I’ve visited.

            Now, all I have to do is sit here at the keyboard and start typing.

            That’s good enough for me.

            Happy writing!


            In a way, this is a summary of what I’ve been preaching for years here at Fred Central.

            The easy read is all about making your book the best product imaginable, producing the best format for your readers, creating the easiest way to get your story out to the public. In other words, creating the easiest read for your readers.

            That brings up the question as to how? Or, more importantly why?

            Do you care?


            As I’ve pointed out before, some authors don’t care to make things easy. They want you, the reader, to come up to their level, not the other way around. They want to “edumacate” you, teach you something, bring you up to a higher level with their prose, style, and format.

            They want to break the mold.

            Nothing wrong with that if they can find an audience, which many do.

            On the other hand, there are those authors who just want to get their message across, whatever that might be. They aren’t out to force their readers to bend to their will. They aren’t out to try and mold readers into their image of a particular kind of reader.

            They want to communicate with as many people as possible, plain and simple.

            Nothing wrong with that either.

            There are those authors that like to throw a little of the mix in there, by keeping it simple, yet throwing in a little more complexity without going overboard in either grammar, style, or format.

            Nothing wrong with that either. There will always be an audience for that as well.


            Since most of you reading this are not likely best-selling authors yet…I have to be realistic here…you’re struggling to make your mark in a huge market filled with countless writers and authors. You want to reach as many readers as possible. Therefore, I personally recommend the “simpler is better” approach.

            There’s the philosophy that since you’re not exactly setting the world on fire yet, why not go for broke and take the highbrow route right off? It wouldn’t matter if you alienate most of your readers with complex prose in some off-the-wall format because you’re not selling many books anyway, right? Maybe, someday, your style will catch on. I say, if that’s what you want to do, go for it.

            On the other hand, if you’re in that same boat, but want to sell more books, and are willing to make a more readable story, try the easier-to-read approach and see where you go.


            This is mainly for new readers here at Fred Central, but it can apply to you that have been visiting a while.

            My philosophy, from day one, has been the same.

            Long before I was ever a writer, I was a reader. Sixty plus years now, not to age myself!

            In all that time, I’ve read a LOT of books…thousands. I’ve suffered through every style and format imaginable. I must also say that I’m not just the average schmuck with a high school degree and only technical training for a background. I have several graduate degrees behind me, so I’m above average “edumukated.” In other words, I’ve been around the block. I’ve also had twenty-six years plus as a writer to add to that. Since the late nineties, I began reviewing them on Amazon, though a lot of them have since disappeared due to age or obsolescence.

            This resume is not meant to brag or tout anything special about me except to state that I’ve been exposed to a lot of writing and reading, including plenty of college textbooks and intellectual tomes.

            My reading interest, despite all that college, still remains with fiction, which many consider “lowbrow.” It will be for the foreseeable future.

            Since I’ve been exposed to so many different writing styles, I know what works for me and what doesn’t. Of course, I’m not everyone, but at the same time, I’ve been around long enough to have punished myself with stuff I haven’t really been comfortable with until I finally realized why I wasn’t comfortable with it. That revelation came about when I started writing in the mid-nineties. It became even more pronounced as I became a better and more proficient writer.

            Despite that rather lengthy resume, I still must say that I’m not everyone. What I have at least proven to myself is that despite anomalies, a lot of the stuff I like best ends up being on the best seller lists. Sure, many of what I call anomalies end up as best sellers as well, but many of them are not as enduring and tend to polarize a lot more readers than the easer-to-read styles.



            It boils down to the easy read.

            Some authors get slammed for boiling their work down to the “base level” and pandering to the lowest common denominator.

            Oh yeah?

            So, that means that when an author writes something so that it’s an easy read that everyone can enjoy, it’s supposed to suck? It sucks because it’s not “challenging” or “intellectually stimulating” enough to satisfy the highbrows?

            Without naming names, I’ll give you examples of what I’m talking about.

            The books don’t throw the dictionary at the reader.

            The books aren’t filled with endless characterization.

            The books don’t jerk at the heartstrings with some complex deep meanings or political or philosophical candyrock psychedelic profundities.

            The books aren’t written in some odd format like no punctuation or 150K words with only three chapters.

            The books aren’t written in multiple tenses or point of view switching from first to third to first every chapter.

            The books don’t have taboo subject matter for shock value.


            The shame of it all is that there are thousands upon thousands of great stories out there. It’s all in the manner of telling (or showing) them that’s the issue.

            Then there are plenty of lousy stories as well. Many of them, unfortunately, get published. I’ve read a few. My reviews reflect the good and the bad.

            Do you prefer to tell your great story in a way that is accessible to everyone, or to few?

            That’s the choice you have to make.

            Happy writing!


            For writers, regardless of genre, there’s nothing like a good castle to add to the atmosphere. I got the inspiration for this article partially from my bud, Richie Billing, who just did an outstanding article on fantasy castles. The problem is that many of you never have and never may have the opportunity to visit a real castle in your lifetime, especially if you live in the good old You Ess And A.

            You can go with thousands upon thousands of photos, endless descriptions from others, but there’s nothing like visiting one yourself. When you describe one in your story, since you’ve never actually been in one, you can just make it up on the fly, depend on the descriptions of others, or do what James Rollins once told me, be vague if you can’t find out (or in this case, see for yourself).

            Then there’s the point of gaining inspiration when all you have is print, or maybe video.

            How can you possibly do something with that?

            I’m going to try an experiment and make an attempt to find ways for you to gain a bit of inspiration without having to book a trip to (mainly) Europe.

            I lived in Spain and Turkey for a total of fifteen years. I lived and breathed castles, every chance I could get, so I chalked up a bunch of castles over those years, including a few in Jolly Olde’ Englande’. In both Spain and Turkey, we (I was not a lone adventurer) often made it a habit to take a weekend drive. In Turkey, it was a bit more planned for safety reasons. In Spain, it was a case of just picking a random road, then driving. More often than not, we’d run into some kind of castle, whether it be a ruin or one fully functional. In other words, I’ve actually been there, done that. While most of them were ruins, living and intact edifices were an occasional prize. In your story, who am I to say that your castle is intact or not?

            Below, I’ve compiled what I hope are a few ways to gain some insight into what a castle is like from everyday places here in the You Ess And A. These examples are a far cry from the real thing, but they’re not all that dissimilar, when you boil it down and use a little to a lot of imagination.

            The thing is to be smart about it and be safe. Some of the better examples I had to omit because the last thing I want to do is encourage risky behavior. These examples may give you your own ideas, but please, don’t go overboard and at the same time, maybe you’ll find even better and still safe examples than what I suggest.


            This is by far, the safest example, whether you’re religious or not.

            I’m talking about a Catholic church. However, I’m not talking about just any old church. I’m talking about the biggest, and most elaborate Cathedral, with a capital C. You need to find one with the fanciest filigrees and maybe some gold leaf and fancy woodwork.

            Now, just ignore the pews, substitute the pulpit for a pair of thrones, and there you have it. Instant throne room. Keep in mind that in real life, the thrones were not all that big, at least the ones I’ve seen. It may be shocking to learn that many of them were rather small, given the stature of the populace at the time.

            If the priest allows it, sit there in different places and start substituting in your mind a bit. Add in details like tapestries and filigrees and whatever else you can think of and you have an instant throne room.

            Imagine in place of the pews, obedient subjects kneeling before the throne, a bard or two off to the side where the band sits, maybe a jester on the other side.

            Oh, and any residual incense smell in the air is fine. In the old days, it would probably have covered the body odor and damp, moldy smell in the air.

            I can’t vouch for other churches, synagogues, or mosques. I’ve been in some, but the examples I’ve seen didn’t have the right structure for what I’m talking about.


            I had another possibility in mind originally, but the negative possibilities that came up as I wrote it made me erase it all. Instead, I came up with a much safer alternative.

            This all, of course, depends on where you live. If you’re in a rural community, you may have to travel to a larger town or city.

            You need to find a parking garage.

            The more elaborate the better.

            Now go for the stairwells.

            If there are any tunnels leading under the street, even better. The plainer the better.

            While this example isn’t the first thing that popped to mind, it’s far safer than what I originally thought of.

            In the stairwells or tunnels, you, of course, have to stretch your imagination, but these places aren’t too different from a castle.

            The sounds and smells would be different, and you’d have to blank out any posters or graffiti on the walls, but just think plenty of silence, mold, dampness and unpleasant malodorous things lingering in the drafty air. Change the concrete to large or even small stones. Narrow the passageways down so that you can stretch your arms across and touch the walls. Lower the ceiling to just above your head. Add in some mold growing from the cracks and maybe a bit of water trickling along the floor. In the stairwells, remove the guardrails and any metal change to stone. Once again, narrow the steps to just wide enough to pass through.

            In the parking garage itself, blank out the cars, substitute the car exhaust for a dank sewer-like smell and you’re close. Where the cars sit, or the parking spaces are lined up, substitute walls and jail cells. Make sure some of them are broken down and the doors missing.


            This example is more of a stretch, but it can still work.

            What you need to do is go to a furniture warehouse. Not just a regular furniture store, but a warehouse with a high ceiling.

            Now, find the beds.

            Pick a child or teens bed and lay on it. I say this because a lot of the people back then were a lot smaller than we are today. From my experience, every single bed I saw was on the small side.

            Pretend it’s surrounded by a canopy with all the trimmings. Think of the high ceiling of the warehouse and imagine it covered with filigree and tapestries. Imagine instead of the new furniture smell, the smell of damp mold, old wood and the faint odor of sewage from a nearby chamber pot.

            If you can find an actual canopy bed, great. Try that one too.

            That, my friends, is…oh, and don’t forget the drafts wafting by.

            Now, try to ignore the salesman.


            Like I said before, most of the castles I saw were ruins. What this means is that they were shells.


            That’s right. Instead of stone all the way through, they were outer walls with hollow insides. That means that the thick outer walls were the framework for wooden insides. The insides rotted out. When the castles were either conquered, caught fire, or abandoned, the wood structures inside either burned out, rotted out, or were salvaged.

            So, when you see the inside of a castle on TV or in the movies, you see a lot of stone, but what you’re actually seeing are outer walls. The insides were quite often a lot of wood with stone bracing. That, of course, did not help with the dampness. The wood beams were little more than squared tree trunks with brick or stone buttresses. There was no such thing as insulation or ventilation or a sewer system.

            Being Europe or even the Middle East, dampness and humidity prevailed, and your local A/C and heating companies were not exactly around to help bring things into the comfort zone.

            Me thinks a lot of the peasants, while living in hovels, actually may have sometimes lived in more comfort, if not less protected from invaders than the above ground caves the royals lived in. That’s not saying much, but those were pretty awful times no matter who you were.


            Secret passages are great for stories and fiction. However, in real life, they were a lot harder to pull off. First off, secret passages significantly weakened those thick walls, which were meant for protection. Second, when examining castle ruins, if secret passages existed, most if not all had to be incorporated into the inner workings which burned like everything else or were salvaged or whatever. In all my time exploring castles, I never saw a hint of secret passages. One reason may be because they were no longer secret. Maybe back in the day they might have been, but in modern times, they became incorporated into the regular structures of the still functional castles. In the ruined ones, not once did I see any indication of one in the outer shell. If there had been one, it would have been fully exposed after four-five hundred to a thousand or more years of plunder, I can imagine.

            So, I cannot give a real-world example of a secret passage except if you have a crawl space under your house and aren’t afraid of spiders, or an attic, use a bit of imagination and go for it!


            Moats were common around castles except as barriers, they weren’t as glamorous as you might think. They were actually used as the sewer. Yup. All that drainage had to go somewhere.

            The moat wasn’t as deep as it appeared to be, but deep enough to take all the wastewater and wide enough to discourage those attempting to try and sneak in. Besides, dredging through sewage just to come up against a sheer rock wall doesn’t encourage invaders.

            To get a sense of a moat, find a storm creek, particularly one that’s polluted or stagnant. It’s much better if it’s fenced. Just stand there on the safe side of the fence and imagine wading through that nasty water, up to your chest, and imagine that chain link fence being fifty feet high without a break. There you go.


            I hope this helps spur your imagination, especially if you will never be able to get to a place with castles. I know I didn’t cover every aspect of a castle, but this is a good gist of the main points.

            One place I forgot to mention for inspiration was of course, Disney. While those castles are ridiculously far from reality, they can still be an inspiration, for looks alone.

            Happy writing!


            You might be surprised how much this question comes up on the writing forums.

            “I’ve always wanted to write but I don’t know how to start the story.”

            Some people have a great idea for a story, but don’t have any idea how to start.

            Uh…okay. Let’s take it from the ground up.


            Long ago, in a galaxy far far away…

            Well, not quite, but back in the day, when I was just an avid reader, around the time I made my first attempt with that disastrous Star Trek satire, written on a Royal typewriter, I think back on browsing the books at the Stars And Stripes bookstore at Torrejon Air Base in Spain. Even then, my creative mind was itching to take a try at writing something. Like so many others, I had no idea where to start, and that Star Trek attempt proved it.

            A big issue was that at the time, I may have had a mild urge to create my own stories, but not only did I not know where to start, I had no idea where I wanted to end either! I had no plan. No A and no B, no title, no plan at all. I just had an urge to write.

            Not much of a plan, and with almost zero skills, or idea what to do, I stuck with music, with which I was actually making money at the time. It was a lucrative side job.

            When I think back on those times, I can relate to the modern writers, starting out, full of ideas or “idea,” but not fully formed.


            Whether you’re a plotter or a pantser, it’s critical that you have a plan before you ever start writing. To do otherwise is inviting disaster.

            That’s the basic idea of A and B.

            A is the beginning.

            B is the ending.

            Plus, if it were me, I’d have the title as well.

            When a writer asks the question, where do I start, I have to ask, why are you even asking that if you haven’t even thought this whole thing out yet?

The young grasshopper hasn’t figured out their master plan. For instance, whether they’re going to start from A and write to B, or if they’re going to start from A and plot out every detail to B or some variation thereof. None of that matters if they don’t have an A and a B in the first place! If there’s no master plan, there’s no start.

            So, to give an example, you have the great idea. Of that I’m making a big assumption. This great idea includes a killer of an ending and premise, but you don’t know how to start.

            Let me say right off before we go any further, if you just have a vague idea of something in mind, STOP! DO NOT CROSS GO. DO NOT COLLECT $200. You should NEVER start a story with only a vague idea of what you want to write about.

            Whether you’re a plotter or a pantser, you need to have the big idea and the plot laid out before you start. It’s not going to write itself for you and surprise you. It’s not going to magically evolve from nothing. You have to know where you’re heading before you start. You have to know what B is or you’re going to have a directionless mess. The purpose of this is to help you start, so you can get to B, WHICH YOU SHOULD ALREADY KNOW.


            The plot of your story is the butler did it.

            This example is a detective story. It could be anything, but I decided on the good old butler for simplicity.

            There are several ways to start.

            Right off, it’s always best to start with an action scene, so every example is going to be with some form of action. NOT BACKSTORY.

            #1 The murder. The heiress walks into the room and someone sneaks up behind her and clubs her over the head with a candlestick. She slumps to the floor. A few minutes later, someone finds her, the police are called.

            #2 A few days before the murder. The heiress is having tea with friends and the butler serves everyone. She’s a bit snippy with him, but he’s polite and lets it roll of his shoulders. The exchange is noticed by the guests in the room, especially the niece.

            #3 After the murder. The story starts with the detective examining the murder scene. She looks for clues and from then on, learns facts and any backstory comes out through interviews with the suspects.

            #4 Maid discovers the body. A maid walks into the room and discovers the body. She has a fit, calls in the butler, and in all the hoopla, ends up being the one that calls the police. During all this, you drop in a few things that will later make it look like either one of them could be the suspect.

            #5 The day of the murder. There’s a party at the house. Everything seems hunky dory, except there’s an argument between the victim and several guests, NOT involving the butler. However, one of those guests turns out to be the butler’s lover, thus the reason for the murder.

            #6 The funeral. The detective attends the funeral and starts observing all the staff and how they react. As they all leave, the detective watches where they go, then his or her gut determines who to follow. It’s the wrong person, of course, the first of many false leads, which eventually lead to the butler.

            These examples can be adapted to any genre of story. All it takes is a little imagination.


            B and the title should already have been set before you ever thought of A. Now where to start? There are many ways, as I just outlined.

            No matter what your story might be, getting started is just a matter of choosing something to HAPPEN. DO NOT START WITH BACKSTORY!

            The story has to start someplace and the last thing you want to do is drag it down with backstory. That’s one reason prologues are going out of favor, though there are still plenty of them around. They’re not exactly illegal, but what I do instead is just make the prologue Chapter 1 with a date as a subtitle. Then, Chapter 2 is subtitled “present day.” That is, IF I don’t want to start the story in present day to begin with. That’s the extent of my backstory unless I want to leak in SMALL DOSES here and there so as to not bog down the action.

            My fantasy stories have no prologues while my adventure/thrillers and icky bugs do, but as I said, the prologues are now modified to Chapter 1 with subtitles. They’re also action oriented so they don’t feel like a narrative drag.

            So, there you have it. There are a multitude of ways to start a story.

            Happy writing!


            Far less common, but not rare is the question, “How do I end my story?”

            Whenever I see this question, I want to go, “Huh?”

            It’s like why in the world would you even start writing when you don’t have a goal?

            Then I think back to my first Star Trek satire and think how I just wanted to write, but thank my lucky stars (there’s an old cliché for you), that I tried it on an old manual Royal typewriter and it was too much effort to get anywhere. Add to that a total lack of skill, and I saved myself a lot of trouble and never got past three quarters of a page.

            Today, one can take a directionless mess several hundred pages with a computer keyboard and end up with no idea how to put it all together in a neat package with a proper ending.

            This is why I consistently emphasize that no matter whether you’re a plotter or a pantser, ALWAYS figure out A and B, and more likely the title, before you ever write a single sentence of the story.

            Without a goal, you’re going to end up with a mess.

            Speaking of goals…


            Someone with a more smartass approach might say, “Uh, duh…”

            However, that’s not the right way to look at it.

            When one wants to write a great story and they have a great idea, execution doesn’t always wash when one doesn’t have the idea fully hashed out.

            The idea that the goal is the plot should be obvious but not always.

            Setting aside any twists and turns, the goal IS in fact the plot, the whole point of the story.

            Back to the butler did it from my last article.

            The butler did it is the plot of your mystery story. It’s a murder mystery. A detective story. The goal is to solve the mystery, therefore that’s the plot. Solve the mystery. What twists and turns you put in it along the way are the plot twists.

            Now, you might think that the ending would write itself. In the end, the butler is caught. That’s the ending. The plot is solved. However, resolving the plot is not the ending in of itself. While you may catch the killer, so to speak, that may not be the actual ending.

            This is where some writers get hung up. While they may have written out their story and have come to the resolution of their plot, they cannot figure out how to end the story.

They’re not the same thing.


            I’m once again using the very simplistic example of the butler did it. It’s a murder mystery but it could apply to any story, any genre.

            In the end, the detective or protagonist (doesn’t have to be a detective) discovers the identity of the murderer.

            Now what?

            Murder mystery = discovery of the killer = plot resolved.

            So what?

            How do you end it?

            There are many ways to end this thing depending on what you want to do.

            #1 Abrupt ending.

            The story ends with the protagonist discovering the identity of the killer in a big aha moment.

            The end.

            #2 Elaborate ending.

            The story ends with an elaborate discovery of the killer and the protagonist calls the police who arrest the butler. The hero then gets the girl/or guy (which is a romantic subplot).

            #3 The killer wins.

            The killer is discovered and kills the protagonist. As much as I hate bummer endings, this surprise twist ending has the butler find out he’s been discovered then kills the protagonist before the good guy or girl can inform the authorities. Then the bad guy or girl carries on with a big smile.

            #4 The killer gets away with it.

            The protagonist discovers the butler did it but can’t prove it, and has to let the bad guy get away with it.

            #5 The killer dies doing something redeemable.

            In the process of chasing the butler, he or she saves someone while confessing to the killing. The protagonist decides to keep silent and let the killer keep his or her reputation.


            It’s a huge given that you have a point to your story. In other words, you have a plot after writing thousands of words of a story that meanders toward some sort of conclusion.

            Somehow, you have to end it eventually. All it takes is a bit of imagination and looking at possibilities. You can use any number of twists. Asking a forum to write it for you is not the way to do it because then it’s not your own. However, I can understand letting them throw ideas at the wall and seeing what sticks. Then twist that around to make something your own. I personally would never do that because I want my stuff to be my own.

            The examples I’ve shown are super generic and meant to apply to anything. They’re meant to spur your imagination in ways I can’t possibly predict, and that’s exactly what I want. I don’t want to write your ending for you. I want you to do that on your own.


            I cannot emphasize how important it is to at least plan out A and B before you start. For me, that doesn’t mean I write the exact details. Not at all. For instance, the current book four of Meleena’s Adventures is in the works. I have A and B down and the title. I’ve already written A because I’m currently on Chapter 4. However, I have NOT written B yet. I have it in my head, but won’t specifically write it until I get there. I DO know what it’s going to be, or generally so in my head. It may change a bit by the time I get there, but not significantly. I know my goal, my plot and how it’s generally going to end. I don’t have to scramble and freak out when I get to B to figure out what to do. You shouldn’t either!

            Happy writing!


            I can’t say it comes up all the time…yeah, actually, it does. On the writing forums, disdain for writing rules comes up a lot. People just don’t want to follow them. They hate, abhor, despise, them (fill in your word for hate). Oh, and I mustn’t forget resent.

            Why is this?

            Some of them are easy to comprehend, while others are a bit more difficult to grasp, like show versus tell (anyone?).

            The thing is that people, especially in the heat of writing, break these rules all the time when they spew out their mental diarrhea. That’s all good and fine. However, when it either comes to editing, or being hung up on the “rules,” some authors come to a dead stop. They feel creatively stifled because they either don’t understand these rules, can’t figure a way to make their story work using them, or just want to rebel and don’t want to use them. There are more reasons as well, but one of the “rules of writing” is not to use lists, ha ha.


            Following all the rules can be tricky because there can be a lot of them. Some may seem obscure from the outset and take a bit of effort to grasp. Some need to be doled out in doses and not taken to the extreme. More on that in a moment.

            Probably the most difficult one to grasp is show not tell.

            This “rule” is one that frustrates so many writers that they just want to throw out the book. Then they’ll write their story with all tell and forget about rules altogether. Understandable.

            Backstory is another one. This is one of the most broken rules out there. Most authors want to tell their story out of whack. They want to screw with their timeline to justify why this and that happens. It’s only natural. It should be done with a feather instead of a sledgehammer. When an author lays down their “masterpiece” and the first half of the book is backstory, no wonder they can’t find a publisher…or readers!

            So, it can be difficult to not only grasp the rules, but to follow them even when you know them.


            There are plenty of outstanding examples of authors (you notice I didn’t say writers) who use the rules effectively. Sure, they may break one here and there, but for the most part, they use the rules, and it shows with an outstanding and easy read.

            Unfortunately, there are a wealth of bad examples, which as reviews will show, polarize readers. Those that tout the rules love it because while many of these rule breakers are still best sellers, these bad examples are automatically building in a polarized audience.


            The rumblings go from “rules suck” to “there should be no rules.”

            Oh boy.

            I sigh when I hear this and it usually makes for a substantial boost in the self-publishing world.

            Unfortunately, not always. Plus, it gives negative encouragement to up-and-coming writers, who need to at least learn to do it right before they try breaking rules they don’t even understand yet.


            As I constantly remind forum readers, I was a book reader long before I was ever a writer. I’ve read thousands of books. It has, more than once, made me wonder why some books turned me off and some I drank in and couldn’t put down.

            Was it the subject matter? Sometimes.

            Was it the writing style? More often than just the subject matter.

            When I started writing, I learned the mechanics and the rules of writing, some of which have adapted and changed over the decades since I first started. Some of these rules have changed a bit, but not by much. Most of those well-established rules still apply today.

            Through writing, I discovered WHY I didn’t like certain books, even though the subject matter was interesting, and the stories were great.

            Through writing, I also discovered why some books were great to read but the stories sucked.

            It was all about the rules.

            I discovered that the rules were there for a reason. When I was a young writer (young not being age!), I was not all that happy with some of the rules either. However, I knew that if I ever wanted to make my stories easier to read and up to the level that I would want to read, I’d better learn those rules myself!

            Comparing my first manuscript, which I’m editing now, to my later work has reminded me of how far I’ve come in 26 years!


            While I feel their pain, it still pisses me off to see writers touting throwing out the rules or saying there are none. It still pisses me off to go into the bookstore (or use the “peek inside” function on Amazon) and see what looks like a great story ruined when the author can’t even follow a few simple rules of writing.

            Folks, there’s a lot of crap out there that doesn’t need to be. Sure, some of it sells, unfortunately, which clouds the issue.

            I hope I can steer some if not all of you to at least learn and get good at the rules, so you’ll know when to break them. Learn to break them in small ways, not enough to take away from that “easy read.”

            Happy writing!


            This article is inspired by a recent trip to San Francisco. It’s not just COVID that restricts travel for my family. It’s time and budget. Given that, we don’t get out all that much. When we do, it tends to have an impact.

            Back in the day, traveling meant something different. My job, the Air Force, gave me golden opportunities in the time before continual deployments. When we traveled, it was more or less permanent from one place to another. That’s why we lived in places like Spain and Turkey. Then we were also able to live for years in different states. However, while overseas, when we took a “weekend trip,” it had an entirely different meaning.

            For the majority of those times, I wasn’t a writer or an author. That doesn’t mean I wasn’t able to catalog a vast “wyberry” of memories and photos from which I could draw inspiration.

            Nowadays, travel takes on a different meaning. Back then, travel meant a relatively short jog someplace interesting. Here and now, it usually means a long one of maybe two or three days with hotels to get to someplace interesting.


            It all depends on your level of inspiration.

            I’ve talked about inspiration multiple times here at Fred Central. What it boils down to is what your imagination threshold is and how you exploit it. If writing is something you have to do, it’s a compulsion, you should be brim full of stories waiting to get out. Everything inspires you. You have way more ideas filling your head than you can write down in a lifetime.

            Does that mean you’ll try and use all of them?

            Not likely.

            Does that mean you’ll use most of them?

            Not likely either.

            What you’ll do is cherry pick some of the best and when it comes down to actual practice, your adventure, wherever it takes you, you’ll end up someplace that’ll probably surprise you.

            Then, you’ll end up where, despite a head full of ideas, a little more inspiration for something new and different won’t hurt to add to your extensive library.

            On the other hand, if everything you have in your head is all imagined, getting out and traveling is a great way to see something for yourself. Nothing beats reality instead of books or on the net.

            Now, what about those of you just dabbling, where writing isn’t a passion yet, or may never be?

            For you, inspiration is a mandatory requirement for you to write.

            Travel is an excellent way to spur your imagination.

            Maybe it’s time to have a convenient excuse to take the family or yourself out of the house and go to that place you were thinking of seeing for real, instead of just on Memorex. You may be surprised what it’s like in real life.


            There are many reasons to travel. For writers, it can be for research of inspiration.

            The key is not to think of it as a mandatory thing for legitimacy for your craft. That’s bull. Get that right out of your head. There’s no law or unspoken rule that says your writing isn’t legitimate unless you travel to the places you use in your books!

            The purpose of travel is to get away from home if you can afford it!

            Then again I have to think back to that old song by the 60’s band The Seeds. It’s called Travel With Your Mind. You can do that by staying at home or going there.

            Never forget that!

            Second, while you’re there, whether for real or in your head, as a writer, it can be a place of great inspiration or research for something you are currently or may write in the future.

            Happy writing!


            This post may seem a bit on the harsh side. In a way it’s a vent. However, it harkens back to several posts in the past about writers on the various forums asking for help with this or that.

            For the most part, especially for beginning writers, the obvious questions are natural.

            I’m talking about function things like point of view, tense, dialogue, you know…

            Technical thingies.

            Where I have to draw a line is when the beginning writer, or even one that’s been at it a while starts asking the community to come up with ideas for them.

            Folks, that’s when I start to cringe, scrunch up in my chair, and sometimes want to yell at the screen.


            Of course, context matters.

            Context is everything. In a real-world setting, when a writer is looking for the name of a particular breed of horse used for plowing fields in England at the turn of the century, that’s a legitimate RESEARCH question. It’s no different from looking it up online, or, finding out if someone in the community knows. I’m all for that!

            However, say, you’re in a fantasy world and you’re looking for names for races of creatures not used before.

            Hold on here!

            In the case of world building in a fantasy world, there are no rules except the RULES YOU CREATE!

            If you ask the community to make up your names for you, you’re giving ownership to them, not you! They’re no longer your creatures. Even if you alter the spelling slightly, you’ve basically used THEIR CREATION, not yours.

            That’s letting them write your story for you.



            This one really gets me.

            “I want to write such and such but I need a plot. Please help.”

            Say what?

            In other words, you want us, the community to write your plot out for you and then let you take credit for what we did for you?

            To me, if you just want to write something but have no idea what, you need to sit back and wait until you have a genuine idea before you even think about starting something. Letting the community create it for you is not the way to do it. Why should we give you an idea we could use ourselves?


            “I want to write a story but don’t know what to write. Please help.”

            You would be surprised how often this question comes up.

            So, this person is asking us, the community to come up with an idea for them?

            I have to admit that when I first started out, I had an itch to write, but no idea what to do with that itch. Therefore, the infamous ¾ page Star Trek satire.

            They need a prompt. They need something to get them going. The thing is that of the several hundred people out there, most of who will never respond, for those that do, who would ever give them an idea they could use? Most would be out-and-out rejects. Without knowing this person’s likes, wants, and needs, nobody could ever guess what this person would want to write about.

            Once in a while I’ll respond with something like “Whatever you write about, it has to come from you, not from us. If you really want to write, you have to feel the urge and already have a story in mind. If not, wait, listen, observe until one hits you. Patience Grasshopper.”

            Then again, as if this were an on-line writing class and the instructor has everyone throw out ideas for an impromptu short story, that would be similar.


            “I’ve got this cop and he has a girlfriend. She loves him but…I don’t know where to go from here. Please help.”

            So, in other words, you want us, the community to write the subplot for you?

            Here again is a case of not research, but asking the community to write the story for the writer.


            It’s great to have a big community through multiple writing forums where one can ask questions to other writers. It’s especially invaluable for research. Usually the information is reliable, but even then, one must do backup research to verify technical issues. As for writing technicalities, plenty of opinion is also part of the deal, especially with people flaunting or out-and-out ignoring basic writing rules. This is especially true with the advent of self-publishing.

            The not-so-great aspect is using the community as an inspirational crutch to write your story for you. Unfortunately, I can see a time where there’ll be an author who derives almost an entire story from the community, yet takes credit for it as his or her own.

            Now, as I alluded to before, when a starting writer comes to the community looking for inspiration, as in what they might get from a class with writing exercises, there is a logic to it. However, for a writer who has it in their blood, or at least from my perspective, we have so many stories in us we don’t need prompting to get them out. What prompting we need is maybe how to get started, or how to get unstuck, or some other mechanical or technical issue we get hung up on. That’s not the same as letting the community come up with the stories we should already have bursting from our brains.

            Am I wrong here? I’m leaving this open ended because there are more avenues and areas I have not addressed to this issue.

            Happy writing!


            The subject of writing retreats came up the other day on the forums.

            Is this something that you might consider?

            Would a retreat be the perfect way to get away from it all? Would this be a chance to spark your creative flow? Could this be the chance to be finally able to concentrate without distractions and write? Bla bla bla.

            It’s time to look into the ins and outs of a writing retreat.


            I guess the main purpose to get away for a retreat is to self-isolate, more than likely in nature somewhere, a quiet place away from distractions so one can write.

            Another possibility is to be able to hang for a certain amount of time with other writers and chew the fat, maybe to include a certain number of voluntary classes.

            The setting may be inspirational. The retreat itself may either be in a beautiful setting, or be one used by other famous writers in the past. It could also be an infamous setting made to inspire one’s writing.

            The whole point is to inspire you to write, maybe even start or complete that novel you’ve been piddling at for a long time.


            Inevitably, these retreats usually come down to cost. For the most part, they ain’t cheap. If someone is going to go through the trouble to put on a quality event, it’s going to cost you. What you must decide is if it’s worth it. Look at the payoff versus whether you may just want to get away for a week or month or more.


            Has this event ever been done before? Look into the history of this retreat. Does it have reviews or anecdotes from past participants? Has it been successful? Are there a lot of distractions? Is weather, or maybe the participants or staff conducive (or not) to good writing?


            Would isolating yourself for a certain amount of time, away from family, friends, job, or whatever, really make any difference in your writing? Would the isolation itself be a distraction? Or, would that be the magic formula you need to get that spark back you’ve been missing?


            I can’t write this article without giving my own take, my own biases, which I’ve saved for last.

            Whenever I see these writing retreats come up, I cringe.

            For some reason, I think of the old days and the very literary writers of old. Back in the day, making a living was a lot more vague. People lived off inheritances, or had much different ways of making due. Taking a week, month, year out of life for a retreat was no great interruption to complete that “great classic” because many of these writers were either already rich, were sponsored, or did something on the side to earn their keep.

            Me, on the other hand, would be stifled by being isolated away from my life. Not to mention, having to dole out my precious vacation time for things far more useful for me. Besides, I do just fine writing on my own, and not having to rely on forced isolation when all I have to do is self-isolate at my choosing, WITHOUT taking vacation, or losing any time away from my regular life.

            I need my life and distractions for my inspiration. That, right there, precludes me from every wanting to go on one of these retreats, regardless of any other positive or negative reasons.

            In fact, isolation for a set period to write would do the exact opposite of inspiring me to write. It would stifle my creativity.


            Writing retreats can be a good thing if you need or can afford them.

            Not for me, but it’s entirely up to you. Hope this helps you make a more informed decision.

            Happy writing!


            I just did an article on dreams last year, so it’s a bit soon to revisit the subject. However, for the past few months, I’ve had some more vivid ones that broke through the barrier so that I almost recalled them.

            When I think about it, if I’d had a notebook nearby, I might have been able to jot down some details to store for later.

            The problem with that?

            My writing is so terrible, I probably couldn’t read my own writing, let alone understand any shorthand if I went into details and didn’t flesh it out. Another problem is that the effort to write it all down would also tend to make me forget what I was dreaming about in the first place.

            The solution?

            Fire up the computer.

            That’s a fine idea if it’s a weekend.

            A workday, not so great. I have a different routine which doesn’t allow for computer time. It would be a stretch to allow for notebook time.

            The fact is that making allowances to jot down dream ideas is just not worth it for me.


            It goes back to the fact that as I alluded to in my original article, none of those dreams are related to anything I’m currently writing.


            This is where dreams may matter.

            If you have better penmanship, a different set of habits waking up, maybe early morning access to a computer, maybe don’t have so many stories already in your head, this could be the golden goose for you.

            This harkens back to a recent article, Write My Story For Me. If you’re lacking inspiration, or are seeking ideas, what better way to do it than to mine your dreams?

            This might be the time to start jotting down notes from your dreams. No matter how screwy they may be, once you build a list of them, they might inspire a story idea.

            If they’re nightmares, well…that could be good and bad.

            I know of some people that keep a diary of their dreams for mental health purposes. Those diaries could be a gold mine for story ideas. They would have to be disguised, of course, to not reveal personal issues, but might be the catalyst for something great.


            Dreams aren’t always a great idea either. They can be disjointed, distorted, conflicting, or downright nightmares that make no sense at all.

            Not only that, but upon waking, just trying to recall them changes them into something else.

            They can bring back extremely unpleasant memories best left alone.

            They can trigger recurring nightmares (this could be good for horror writers).

            They can cause emotional problems.


            While I’ve sometimes had vivid dreams, and only occasional nightmares, for the most part, while sometimes vivid, I most of the time forget them as soon as I wake. I can recall the ones that recur, but they’re not something I’d want to use in a story.

            What I do use in storis are daydreams.

            I daydream. I’m fully conscious and dream up stuff all the time. This is not the same as sleep dreaming. I’m fully aware of my surroundings and am actively thinking of what I’m doing. I’m creating.

            Do I use every daydream?

            Of course not.

            I use some of them. I ponder and alter and repeat and rinse. I keep refining until I sit down and start writing. Then it just flows. Soon my daydream turns into a story.

            Is it a complete daydream?

            Of course not.

            Oftentimes it’s just a nugget of an idea. A main theme that I build on. From it, I create my A and B and then I go off on the adventure.


            When I woke this morning, I had a series of dreams I could recall for a few moments before I went on to something else. A few times I went back into the same one. Do I remember them now?



            They were not important enough, or had a great enough impact on me to rise to the top.

            That’s what usually happens.

            Did I have an urge to grab a notebook, turn on a voice recorder (if I had one), or rush in to turn on the computer?

            No because while they were sort of entertaining, as I became fully aware, I could tell they were not something I would have any practical use for. They were just dreams.

            Maybe what you dream will be like me, nothing to write home about. Maybe they will. That’s up to you to decide.

            Happy writing!


            Recently, this subject came up on one of the forums. Since Showing not telling is a huge reason that some writers want to throw out the rules and write crap, I thought it was time to resurrect this article. It turns out, the original was one of my earlier ones, from back in 2011, September to be precise.

            While I may have got down to brass tacks with showing not telling since that original article, I cannot recall either the times nor other titles, so here you have it, the original. It’s slightly tweaked and updated, of course, for all you newbies to my site, and a refresher for you old timers, my thoughts on show not tell.


            Show not tell.

            Geez, I used to hate those words!

            They were my nemeses, the curse of my writing existence, the Phoenix that carried me down in flames. For the longest time, I just didn’t get it. No matter how hard I tried, I couldn’t see or tell the difference between showing and telling. It’s taken years (decades now) to be able to notice the difference. I no longer get irritated when I hear those words because I realize how difficult it can be for a writer to recognize the concept, especially in the heat of creating. There used to be a commercial for Netflix back in the day where this woman told a character “Show, don’t tell” and I just wanted to slap her silly.

            Showing and not telling seems almost like a contradiction in a story. After all, you as an author, are telling a story, right? Wrong! You are showing a story. As weird as it sounds, your job is to show a story, as much as possible. As hard as it may be to get your mind around this concept, well, at least it was for me, a story is a lot more interesting if it is shown through words than told through words.

            The best way I can demonstrate that is by an example.

            Mary went into the house and told Jane that there was something going on at the office and it creeped her out, but she didn’t know what to do about it. Jane at first, didn’t believe her, but after a bit of convincing, had to admit there may be something to what Mary was saying. They decided they should go back down there and check it out together.

            What you have is a bit of narrative where the author is telling the reader about something that transpired. While there’s nothing outright wrong with that, besides being a bit passive, there’s a big problem that many authors cannot see right off. The entire paragraph is a bit tell. This is where I used to get into trouble all the time. I couldn’t see it for what it was. I was describing something that happened, but what I couldn’t see was that I was being lazy and not turning it into something more active. That’s what you, as an author, needs to watch out for.

            That paragraph needs to be shown. How do we do that? Instead of telling the reader what happened, turn it into dialogue and action. Make it happen in real time instead of something that happened in the past.

            Mary barged through the door and faced Jane at the kitchen table. “There’s something going on at the office and it’s creeping me out. Scott keeps going in the back room and locking the door. He’s up to something.”

            Jane shrugged. “He’s always up to something.”

            “No, this is different.” Mary grabbed her shoulder. “Have you noticed how he looks at everyone lately? The way he smells? He has this gleam in his eye.”

            “I…” Jane squirmed. “Now that you mention it, he does seem a little off.”

            “Have you ever tried to go into that back room?”

            “Well, no. Not lately.”

            “I did yesterday.” Mary slapped the table. “Guess what he did? He practically bit my head off. Sheila from accounting heard him, too.”

            Jane stood and grabbed her purse. “Maybe we’d better take a look for ourselves.” She glanced at the clock. “He’ll be gone for the next few hours.”

            “I’ll drive.” Mary jiggled her keys.

            Notice the difference? It is much longer, but it went from a boring and mundane paragraph telling the reader about something to a dynamic scene that showed the reader something.

            Now for the tricky part. There’s nothing wrong with telling in a story. However, there’s a time and place for it. Telling should be kept to a minimum. When it’s possible to show it, show it instead. You’ll have a much better story that way.

            A few more examples.

            Ron was bored.

            Oh…kay…so what? You’re telling the reader Ron was bored.

            How about:

            Ron yawned, tapped his foot, then rolled his eyes. He stood and paced, sat again, then tugged on his hair. “I can’t stand this!”

            Now it shows Ron is bored.

            The storm raged on.

            This is a case where, depending on time and expediency, you could go from show to tell, depending on how necessary the more elaborate show is, versus, whether it’s needed or not.

            The winds continued to blow, lightning flashed, rain fell in huge waves that flooded the streets.

            How important is it to describe the storm, or is it just an aside to let the reader know something that was already described before?

            This is a case where showing is okay since the telling has already been done…maybe ad nauseum.


            Show versus tell is always better for a more active story, but there IS some discretion. There IS a time and place for tell. If you’re a literary writer, in love with words, you can probably get away with more tell. However, if you’re an action-oriented writer, a commercial writer, then you need to get to the point right away.

            Showing and not telling is essential to keep the writer engaged.

            Happy writing!


            I’ve talked about interviews in 2017 and 2018 but since I just rolled through one on the 15th of May, I got inspired to revisit this subject.

            As a writer an especially an author, when it comes to marketing, doing interviews is an integral part of the marketing side of “the bidness.”

            An interview can be either intimidating or fun, depending on how you approach it. It’s not quite the same as speaking in front of a crowd.


            While speaking in front of a crowd usually involves a live audience staring back at you, more than likely an interview is going to be over the net or over the radio, so the audience is somewhere else. They may be listening live, but this interview may also be pre-recorded, or just an exchange of questions to be posted on a site.


            Q&A CHAT – The Q&A chat is where the interviewer will either send you a set of predetermined questions, or will open up a free-form discussion through a chat window or e-mail exchange. This is probably the least intimidating form and gives the author the best chance to form and edit their answers.

            The caveats to this style is what the interviewer does with the material. How do they edit not only the questions, but your responses? What does the final product look like? Next, who is the audience and what reach is this interview going to have? Since it’s not live, the audience doesn’t get to see you or hear your voice. They don’t necessarily get a feeling for your personality. While it may be the less intimidating, it’s also the coldest.

            LIVE RADIO – The live radio interview is where you go live on the air, whether it be on an actual radio station or maybe on a live podcast. The questions may be predetermined, or it may be a free-form or combination, depending on the time allowed by the interviewer’s staff. This is where you’re speaking in front of a crowd. The difference is that they’re not staring at you and you can’t stare back at them. It’s only slightly less intimidating if you have a problem speaking in public. There are plusses for shy people as you may not have to stare at anyone, especially if it’s on the phone or maybe on Zoom without video.

            The caveats are that your audience gets to hear you and get a feel for who you are. They get a chance to gauge your enthusiasm for what you write and your current book. The downside is it can also highlight your insecurities. Plus, there is the possibility the interviewer can throw a monkeywrench into the proceedings with off-the wall questions. Or, you can sabotage things by being a lousy guest. Then there are the technical issues that can blow the interview like audio or connectivity issues. However, if things go well, the radio interview can be a huge boost.

            If you can do the interview in the studio, that can be a huge plus as well as a minus. It all depends on if you’re the solo guest, or if there are others, it’s a panel discussion, and if you’re an active participant. If you’re unaware of what’s involved beforehand, that can make pitching your book that much harder.

            PRE-RECORDED RADIO – This method is almost the same as live radio, except it’s a little less intimidating as any issues or glitches or flubs can be fixed before the episode airs. Also, if things go bad, the entire interview can be scrapped, if the interviewer allows that. Sometimes, they even allow for retakes.

            LIVE VIDEO – I’m including pre-taped and live TV into this. This is by far, the most intimidating and also the most challenging. There’s nothing more compelling than for an author to reach a wide audience through live TV or video. The issue is how the author comes off in front of a camera. Some people are just not meant to be on camera for whatever reason. It should not be that way, but the sad fact is that to sell yourself and your books, while it’s perfectly fine at a book signing or in any number of ways, to be interviewed live on TV, people tend to pick you apart from the armchair a lot more.

            If you don’t fit a certain “demographic,” for instance, it doesn’t matter what you write. If you don’t look a certain way, when you come on for your interview, certain audience members will take one look and drift away or change the channel. They won’t even look at the book cover or subject matter.

            Those are huge caveats. At the same time, if you happen to fit the demographic and come off as visually appealing, this can mean a huge boost in book sales. You must be able to speak to a huge audience. The difference is that you’re going to be speaking to a camera. Your immediate audience is going to be a bored camera crew and a few staff wandering around in the background (if they aren’t chased off the set). That’s it. What you need to do is concentrate on the interviewer and hope he or she sticks with the pre-screened questions. They’re more likely to stick with the script since they don’t want to look bad on camera either. Unless your book is controversial, and they have a rep for stirring the pot. Usually, the interviewer is the least of your worries. YOU need to be confident and be able to speak without stumbling over your words. Don’t think that thousands of people may be watching you.


            As a writer with a small publisher, I would take anything I can get. On the other hand, live TV or video is probably not my best bet because I’m one of those that doesn’t fit the correct demographic. Then again, that wouldn’t stop me either. I don’t care, personally.

            I’d do any interview, the more the merrier.

            I just did an interview with a podcast live radio station over in Jolly Olde’ Englande’ and it was a hoot. It was short and sweet, and I’d do it again.

            No telling if it’ll sell any books, but I’d do it again if the opportunity arises.

            If I were you, stage fright or fear of speaking in public, I’d suck it up and get out there. Your books aren’t going to sell on their own!

            Happy writing!


            Today, we’re flooded with forums on the internet, in particular Facebook. We can’t join them all, but as a writer, which this blog is all about, we still have to be choosy. Sometimes it’s a matter of just knowing the right question to ask to figure out how many of them are out there.

            Once in a while, if you’re out there long enough, you’ll come across one that seems legitimate enough. Maybe it’ll start with the best of intentions. However, after a while, it turns for one reason or another into nothing more than a bitch session.

            The posts start with legitimate questions about technical writing issues.

            Then the posts start delving into pet peeves.

            Before you know it, everyone and their brother is airing their grievances about this and that. Within the blink of an eye, you spend your time going from one arcane argument to another.


            Here’s the thing.

            If you’re an experienced writer, and are willing to stay with the back and forth from the frustrated, the antagonized, and the “experts,” you might just glean something useful from whatever the original question or bitch was about.

            Oftentimes the answer is obvious right at the start, but about half the participants in the argument don’t agree because “the rules are made to be broken.” Yeah, like I haven’t heard that one before!

            What about the new writer that doesn’t have the experience to figure out what’s what?

            This is where these type forums can be destructive, or at least will lead to even more confusion.

            With all the conflicting answers, who do you trust?


            The maturity of the crowd becomes quite evident as you see the arguments, especially when they start becoming personal. This also reflects on the moderator who often does little to censor this stuff. Sometimes though, the moderator DOES censor, just without fanfare and the next thing you know, you never hear from so and so again. It’s subtle, especially if the moderator never says anything about it.

            Then again, some participants may be passive aggressive just enough to get away with it. Others will have enough maturity not to react in the expected ways to a challenge or an insult.


            The questions can range from legitimate ones to veiled complaints. What may seem like a legitimate question at the outset will have an aside tacked on at the end. This spoils the intent of the question.

            Maybe the questioner will leave the aside off until they get the answers they were looking for. They’ll wait to see how many people agree with them before they give the big reveal.


            I’ll have to admit that all forums have bits of this stuff, to some degree, but what I’m talking about is a few that are targeted to be reactionary, specifically about writing. They’re designed to air grievances about what irritates people about writing.

            While they can be of some use, I also believe they best be left to experienced writers and not for beginners. This can lead them in the wrong directions, especially if they don’t have the experience to tell the good from the bad. It’s entirely up to the moderator to filter these people out but a lot of times, all the moderator wants is numbers, so they don’t care. I can’t speak for everyone, and know some are very discretionary, but when it comes to online, you get what you get, so be careful.


            It goes without saying that it’s a big world out there on the web, and it’s not only full of good info, but plenty of bad stuff as well. When you’re a writer, whether experienced or just starting out, you have to pick your sources well.

            Happy writing!


            I’ve talked about writing styles.

            I’ve talked about consistency in writing.

            I’ve talked about punishing your reader with your writing.

            I’ve talked about the writing getting in the way of the story.

            I’ve talked about experimenting with different writing styles.

            This time I’d like to talk about throwing everything at the wall and not bothering to separate or clean it up into something coherent. In other words, throwing everything including the kitchen sink at your reader.

            Of course, you may wonder why I bring this up now?

            I recently read a book that, I kid you not, used every writing style imaginable in the same novel.


            I will not name the book or the author. I already gave my review on Amazon. While I enjoyed the story itself, it was a real struggle so the rating was low.

            What did I see?

            It went from present to past and then present tense again.

            It had zero point of view. The author head-hopped at will. The was no main character but four…no five main characters, and the author interchanged their dialogue and action at will.

            The author abruptly switched to different characters from the main four or five…unrelated ones in first person.

            The author used italics for internal thoughts of minor characters that were so minor, you blinked and missed them.

            In other words, the author threw everything but the kitchen sink as far as writing styles into the story. About the only thing missing was second person, but maybe I just missed it somewhere.


            Here’s the thing. I’ve been reading for over sixty years now. Before you say I’m just old and set in my ways, consider that nothing I say or have opinions on is new. Nothing as far as style goes is new, no matter what you think. It’s all been done before, many times in the past. First person? Been done. Present tense? Been done. Mixing tenses and styles? Been done. None of this is just a millennial thing or a Gen X or Gen Z thing, so don’t think some gen invented these styles. They’ve been around forever.

            As for me, as a reader BEFORE I was a writer, as a young spud, there were certain books I grew up with that I loved, and some I didn’t.


            It wasn’t always the story.

            It was the writing. Why is that?

            Because I had trouble reading them. The writing got in the way of the story.

            That’s right. Some that are considered “classics” I loved because the writing didn’t get in the way of the story, but at the same time some of the classics I found unreadable because the writing DID get in the way of the story.

Then again, I loved the movie.


            It took a long time to figure out why. Once I learned how to write, the light bulb finally came on. That’s when I learned the mechanics of writing and what works and what doesn’t, at least for me, and a lot of other writers and readers. I’ve been doing unofficial polls of people around me that are readers and gleaning this data for decades.

            Just because something is considered a classic doesn’t mean it’s a good or easy read. Maybe it was the first of its kind. Maybe the story was great but with so few people who could read, those that did didn’t know any better. Maybe the movie covered for the fact the writing sucked. Maybe a few of those classics really were written well. Maybe a few of them set the beginnings of the standards we use today.

            So, with that out of the way, what impression did I come away with from this book?

            All I wanted to do is get it finished. I found the story fascinating for several reasons, yet it was so hard and so annoying to put up with the crap the author was throwing in the way, I almost put it down several times. I paid good money, and invested time in it, therefore I wanted to see it through. When I scanned it at the bookstore, I saw third-person, past-tense. I also saw short chapters and scenes and plenty of dialogue. The quick scan missed all the other crap mixed in there. I can’t always catch the bad stuff.

            So, it became a matter of almost dread instead of pleasure to sit down and read this book.

            Should a book be like that?

            The whole point of reading, especially fiction, is for pleasure, not pain!

            When I closed the past page, instead of a smile on my face, it was with a sense of immense relief. A book shouldn’t be that way, especially since it’s entertainment.


            When I talk about punishing your reader, which I have many times in the past, this is a perfect example. Throwing everything including the kitchen sink style-wise at the reader is not the way to make friends and grow an audience.

            The whole point of writing is to tell or show a story in the most efficient way possible. You don’t want the writing to get in the way of the story. By switching around styles constantly, you’re not only jerking the reader out of your world, but you’re quite possibly irritating or losing your reader.

            Folks, that’s not the way to tell a story.

            Pick one style and stick to it.

            You and your reader are better off.

            Happy writing!


            There’s a certain author that has recently passed away. I love his writing, quirks aside.

            His legacy continues in the form of cowriters. My assumption is that he left many ideas on the shelf and now his family, probably through a corporation, is keeping his name alive through co-authors who run with these ideas.

            So far, several books have been published since his death and they’ve been great. I’ve seen no sign of things letting up. I hope it continues.


            The writing quality and style have continued unabated.


            The latest book just came out and I’m recently finished it.

            All the bells and whistles were there.

            The problem?

            While the original author has managed to stay away from sex, religion and politics, this particular co-author could not keep his mitts out of the mix.

            This particular co-author used to write some great stuff on his own until his last original book, in which he turned political and ruined his series.


            While historically, there may have been a legitimate reason to include what the co-author did, instead this new book pounds it in at every opportunity, unnecessarily, blatantly giving the author’s viewpoint.

            There was no need for that, not only for the story, but for those that already know where the author is coming from. He’s not going to convert the converted. He’s only going to piss off those that don’t want to listen to preaching. In doing so, he just alienated those into this particular branch of the legacy. What’s worse, he didn’t let up. Right until the end, he continued to rub it in.


            This deceased author has a reputation for keeping things neutral, from either side, and that’s one thing that attracted me to him decades ago. I’ve known for a long time where he personally stands, but don’t care.

            That’s fine with me because he’s never preached any of that to me whether I agree or not. He hasn’t clouded his great stuff with preaching.

            Now, with co-authors taking up the banner posthumously, those unwritten rules are being thrown out the window.

            Nuff said.

            Happy writing!


            Do you have self doubt about your writing?

            Are you wallowing in self doubt?

            Is your angst the motivation for your writing?

            Bla bla bla…

            I hear this a lot, you know where (the forums, of course), and while I should be more understanding, I also have a bit of wanting to slap these people on the side of the head and wake them up. Just a little, mind you, because while I’m not there myself, I’m not immune.

            It took me a while to get into my state of confidence, but my story may not be typical.


            I’ve probably never looked at writing the same way as most people.

            Because I was a failed musician, and I DO say that tongue in cheek, I needed another artistic outlet. I already had one, of sorts, with a scroll saw and wood, so I was not completely devoid of things to do. However, in the case of wood, I took already created patterns and simply transformed them to wood boxes since I had no other patterns to go by.

            Yeah, fulfilling for a new hobby to a point. It was, at first, a hobby that turned into a passion over time.

            Writing was different. When it came along around the same time as woodworking, I found it my true calling. It was something I had to do. Why? I guess I’d always had it in me since my first beginnings with the Polka Dot Sewer drawing. From there, mayhem ensued in many different ways. The only issue was that it never found the right outlet until the advent of the computer and keyboard.


            It was never that I had any doubts, in particular, it was only a matter of if I could really do it. When I whipped out The Cave, that very first novel, I knew right then I could do it. So, from that point on, I’d not only found my passion, but further mayhem ensued.

            This is where I had my only bit of self-doubt. Not in the fact that I could write, or create stories, but whether I could ever get published. Sure, I wanted to get published. However, with no writer’s group, no guidance, no mentors, I started the query process and of course, got rejected. As many of you know, even AFTER I got an outstanding mentor, two in fact, plus several writer’s groups, plenty of experience, and had accumulated two decades and 689 rejections, you’d think I had some self doubt.


            That self doubt came very early in the process and it had nothing to do with my ability to write.


            I never once sat and contemplated my navel, wondered why I should bother, why it was worth it to waste my time. Why should I bother writing anything? Why should I put two and two together. Everything I write is stupid. Nothing I write makes sense. I have no skill. I’ll never compare to so and so.

            In a nutshell, I didn’t care.


            I could call it whining, but I won’t because in a way, I’ve had small flashes of these same doubts for a brief millisecond. I know where some writers are coming from.

            At the same time, I don’t approach this passion in the same way as others do.

            First off, I don’t believe there’s value in suffering to get the word out.

            In the complaints I see, often it seems to me the writer believes you have to suffer for your art.

            Say what?

            Some people got into writing to have a creative outlet to substitute for some other issue they’re dealing with.

            While I have no issue with them finding a creative outlet to work through other issues, writing should be used as a positive force, not a negative one.

            I see a lot of real clinical depression come through with a lot of the complaints. This has nothing to do with the writing itself, but much deeper issues. Bringing this to a writing forum is the wrong place to go.

            Why should I bother.

            This is so hard.

            Every word I write seems stupid.

            While there are plenty of trolls out there to set them straight, and maybe they should be set straight, are we dealing with clinically depressed people? Who’s to say what the deal is?

            It also goes back to the old deal with people trying to get others to write their story for them. They want to write but don’t want to go through the effort to come up with something original. So, they throw it out to the community to make it up for them.

            What then?

            They now have a bunch of community ideas to choose from, if some of these schmucks are willing to give them away, then this guy or gal runs with it. They don’t own this stuff, the community does.


            Setting aside deep candyrock psychedelic profundities, a confident writer is not going to give a crap what other people think, at least not at the outset. I’m not talking a blank wall of supreme confidence. I’m talking someone who knows they can write, not perfectly, but knows they can concoct a decent story that isn’t going to be a nightmare to edit.

            A confident writer isn’t steeped in angst at every page, suffering for their art. They can sit down and hammer out their story and enjoy the process. While they may have doubts about getting it published, they don’t necessarily care. The whole point is to get the story down and worry about the nasty publishing part later. If it’s meant to be, it’ll happen.

            The confident writer may be an already successful one that’s published and has to make deadlines. There may be pressure to come up with original ideas that create self doubts at times, especially if the critiques of the books start to go down toward the negative.

            However, we’re mostly talking about the new or unpublished writers who are starting off, with small presses, or are self-published. YOU are the ones more likely with the most doubts, if any.

            Will people like what you do?

            Do YOU like what you do?

            You SHOULD like what you do. After all, you wrote it!


            All the navel gazing in the world isn’t going to accomplish anything if you don’t get the story finished.

            All the navel gazing in the world isn’t going to make the story any better if it never gets completed.

            All the navel gazing in the world isn’t going to satisfy you unless you stop it and either fix your mistakes, polish the work, and back away from it knowing you did your best.

            Happy writing!


            Based on one particular forum I participate in, it’s hard enough working in your native language. Since I work primarily with English, I can only speak for that language, but I can imagine that same principle applies to any other language, yet I have no clue if there are perfectionists or language police out there in French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, etc., that culturally or socially allow such a thing as picking apart prose the way we do in English.

            Therefore, I can only apply this to MY native language, English. If your primary language is an “other,” and believe me, the “other” has more deep meanings to me than just language, then present it in your own blog.

            My subject today is using foreign words, or making up words that “coincidentally” happen to coincide with words or terms in other languages.


            In real-world fiction, the chances are, you, the writer, are more than likely to use real foreign terms for whatever reason. Nothing wrong with that.


            Are you using that word in the correct context?


            For those of you with multi-lingual capability, maybe using such terms is perfectly fine. Maybe since you speak another language, you know the correct context of the word or phrase you are using. That’s fine.

            If you have maybe heard it before, maybe lots before and decide to use it, you have to be careful that the word or phrase you are using is and has been used in the correct context. There’s no law that says others have used it correctly. Certain words and phrases can develop stereotypes of wrong meanings. Therefore, be careful. These words and phrases can develop universally wrong meanings to outsiders, perpetuated by movies and TV and even ahem…books.

            That means, doing a bit of research.


            With science fiction, a lot of the words are technical, which tend to not be an issue as much when it comes to foreign words and phrases. There can be coincidence, of course, but it’s all about the context. However, since a lot of science fiction is still rooted in the real world, you should still be careful.


            The world of fantasy is almost a free-for-all when it comes to names, places, and terms. The only caveat to that is that there are so many genres of fantasy, some are rooted in real places. Many of those places have cultures with names, places and terms where real words can be misused, even in a fantasy setting. This is where, despite a made up world, research may be necessary.

            On the other hand, if the world has no basis for reality, then the free-for-all of names, places and terms creates completely coincidental words that may occasionally be real foreign words, less likely phrases.

            Will any of these cause the author grief?

            What if a hero in the story has a name that means something obscene in Chinese? Russian? Laotian?

            How would the author even know if they don’t speak that language?

            The same for any other term.

            There IS no way to know when making stuff up out of thin air. You just have to go with it and not give it a second thought. However, the worst thing to do is try to cover it all up with unpronounceable names with lots of punctuation! Try to keep these made up words simple and don’t even worry about coincidence.


            Unless using real foreign words and terms, keep in mind that there are millions upon millions of real words out there and you can’t possibly know then all. Therefore, don’t even try. Make up your own words at will and go with it. You can’t be faulted for not knowing every word in existence. You also can’t be expected to get on Google every time you make up a word, especially given that not even Google knows everything! That would make your writing come to a screeching halt. It’s bad enough procrastinating with Facebook, or doing regular research on stuff that really matters!

            Happy writing!


            I’m sure I’ve talked about this plenty of times in the past, but especially after a movie I watched the other night, everything has been done before and everything is cliché.

            Does that mean that you have nothing to write about?

            Far from it.

            Read on…


            Maybe the first original idea, that we know about, was chipped in stone, or painted on a cave wall. Then again, who’s to say, those authors didn’t cop the idea from someone else in the telling?

            Was their such a thing as influencing, plagiarism, or copying other’s works back in the stone age? Did anyone care?


            I have to digress back to rock and roll for my most memorable example.

            One time during an interview, guitarist Richie Blackmore was asked where he came up with some of his guitar licks. He said he stole many of them from other artists.

            That’s right, guitar shredder and god Richie Blackmore admitted he stole licks from other guitarists just like everyone else.

            The same is true for every artist no matter the medium.

            Whether it be directly or indirectly. We all beg, borrow or steal ideas or influences from our mentors, peers, or heroes. We emulate and are influenced in style by those we admire.


            There’s this new movie that just came out.

            It’s loud, full of monsters, and full of cliches.

            It cops a lot of things from a lot of different movies.

            The critics are having a field day with how many things it stole from other movies.

            Those that loved it, including me, don’t care.

            This movie reminded me that once again, not only is everything cliché, but there are few if any original ideas. It’s a matter of how you shove everything together into your own unique blend and make it your own.

            This movie did in such a way that some thought was too close to several similar movies in the past.

            Some people took offense to this. Others could care less.


            People don’t seem to get so bent out of shape when you have thousands upon thousands of books that come out every year that do exactly the same thing. They all have a plot, they all have characters, they all have some kind of genre. They’re all full of exactly the same things you find in a thousand other similar books.

            Why aren’t people getting so upset about books doing the same thing the movies are doing. Music?

            Okay, in music there are those that sue and in very few cases, they make a case. A melody can go only so far before it becomes a complete copy. In a few cases, the artists demonstrated to a court that the twelve notes, who can be combined in a finite way, were combined in such a way as to be a direct copy. In a few cases, the court was not convinced those same twelve notes were similar enough to be considered a direct copy.

            However, when it comes to thousands upon thousands of words, there are a lot more combinations, which given the much more limited number of plots, genres etc, would seem to still give way to the same thing as music. Plagiarism. However, the big difference between melody and words is voice. I don’t mean vocal quality, but author voice.


            There are a finite number of plots, then when you add in genre, it’s those same finite plots just with the face of a genre thrown in. However, what makes every single one of them unique is author voice.

            Author voice can’t be duplicated.

            What can be duplicated is the exact same place, characters, and phrasing. THEN it becomes plagiarism.

            That is so extremely rare as to be almost nonexistent.

            It can happen, but not often. I’ve never actually seen it.

            I have seen many movies that are basically the same thing, yet they’re tweaked enough to be considered different. Same plot, a lot of the same phrasing, but different actors. That’s about it.

            A lot of music is homogenized so it all sounds the same. Same phrasing, same intros, same basic structure. The vocals all have the same quality. The words all talk about the same things. The only differences are a few twists and turns in the basic musicianship and the vocal qualities. Oh, and even many of the album covers look the same. Yet, they’re all just different enough to get away with it.

            Author voice?

            The last thing you should worry about is if what you’re writing about has been done before.

            YES, IT HAS BEEN!

            The last thing you want to get hung up on is whether or not your story has been done before. What you need to concentrate on is writing what you feel, finding your own voice, but also finding your own characters. If you’re not using generic character names, fine. If you are, it might be a good idea to get on Google, or whatever, and look those names up and see if they’ve been used before. A name change might be a good idea!

            The best cure for your trepidation is to read. A lot.

            If you’re writing noir detective, read a lot of noir detective so you not only get a good feel for the genre, but have an idea what you can do so it isn’t a direct copy.

            It goes without saying if you are inspired to write a particular genre, you must love it enough for some reason to be influenced by it. That means, you probably know it well enough not to directly copy someone else. At least I hope not!

            A good healthy mix of genres isn’t such a bad thing either.


            The fact is that everything is a cliché. What you need to do is figure out what you want to write and forget about the albatross hanging over your head called “am I original?” Nobody is in the big picture. However, everybody is in voice. In a way, that’s really the big picture.

            When someone browses books at the store or online, they go to the mystery section because they love mysteries. They aren’t looking for some unnamed genre that doesn’t exist. They expect mysteries. Think about it.

            Happy writing!


            I last talked about this in 2017, but due to a recently formed forum on Facebook, and through several others, with similar posts, I thought it warranted a revisit. I’m including the original post, tweaked to include the latest info.

            I originally blatantly copped this inspiration from a Facebook friend. He ranted that several of his “friends” complained that though he was a writer, some of his posts were full of typos. What gives?

            Most recently, another poster who is a total stranger ranted about people who corrected grammar when people speak. This is irritating to the extreme. I’ve seen it in movies and TV, and in real life. It’s like your annoying friend who has to show how intellectual they are.

            Back to regular texts, I’ve talked about typos in past posts, directly and indirectly but in the context of editing.

            In this article, I’ll just talk about typos specifically.


            Maybe this goes back to the days of pen and paper or something. Think technology.

            When people had the time to manually write something with pen/pencil and paper, they had to think about what they were doing in a long-form manner. It took manual dexterity and physical ability, effort to form those letters and words. Because of that, more immediate in-the-moment thought went into every word. An experienced writer, if not on a tear, was more likely to spell correctly way back when.

            Well, maybe. Given some of the hand-written letters and manuscripts I’ve seen, that’s not always a given. There are plenty of examples of glaring typos in manuscripts. Let’s just say, sometimes an author getting on a hand-writing tear could’ve been an example of being in slower motion than in today’s world of the computer keyboard.

            Today, with keyboards, where you can type a mile a minute, it’s a lot easier to create typos. If you don’t go back over every word, every sentence, those little nasties slip by. Sometimes, EVEN WHEN YOU DO go back over what you wrote, something will slip by. This doesn’t even include thumb typing and auto correct on phones. Aaagh!

            There’s an old adage. You see what you thought, not what you wrote.

            You can be the best author in the world, or to be more realistic, the mostest, biggestest most best-selling author in the world. However, by that, you’re that way because you have an army of proofreaders and editors to back you up before any gibberish you write ever gets to print!


            When you’re speaking through writing, off-the-cuff, it comes with all your baggage. We all have typing quirks, no matter how good a typist we are. Some of us are a lot better than others when it comes to tapping keys. The better we are, the fewer “tot he’s” we make (that’s “to the”) or “form” instead of “from” and such… leaving letters off etc. Now, knowing or not even knowing all of our typing quirks, how many make a spontaneous burst, like on Facebook, then go back and self-edit before hitting SEND?

            Yeah, I thought so.

            How many are so sure we already did self-edit and can’t see the forest through the trees?

            How many type with their fingers or thumbs on a phone and have auto-correct as I alluded to above? Have you tried to edit some of that crap and just gave up in frustration when the app keeps trying to correct it back? Yeah, I could rant all day about apps.


            Back when I originally wrote this article in 2017, I had just launched a new Facebook page to get ready for the first Gold Series novel Lusitania Gold. The page is called Detach And His Search For Gold.

            I worked at a furious pace, did all the preliminaries, uploaded a few images, set up an initial story and had everything set. Then I sent it out and invited a bunch of friends.

            Guess what?

            After inviting what I figured was all my interested friends, I happened to glance at the title of my page.

            Deatch And His Search For Gold.

            Aaaagh! In my haste and quick edit, I misspelled Detach, the main character’s name. I’d just invited a whole bunch of friends to my page and couldn’t even get the spelling of my main character right.

            I was an established author with one book, #2 on the way, and I made a big blunder.


            Aaagh! Double aaagh!

            I fixed the error after going through a process with Facebook to figure out how to do it. Apparently, it wiped out all my invites and I had to do them over again. Maybe those invitees got the invite twice and thought I was dogging them. I don’t know.

            My rush, or maybe forest-through-the-trees mentality caused a semi-embarrassing typo.

            It was semi-embarrassing because I’ve been at this long enough to know that this stuff happens. You can’t beat yourself up about it.

I repeat.

            You can’t beat yourself up about it – stuff happens. So don’t let others.


            Just because you’re an author doesn’t mean you can write letter-perfect.

            If that were the case, why would there be editors?

            I rest my case.

            Happy writing!


            Over the course of the past year or so, just to pick a timeframe, I’d say the subject of working on multiple projects at once has come up at least a half a dozen times on the various forums I participate in. While not the most popular question, it still comes up often enough.

            My usual answer is to stick with one and finish it before you move on.


            If you work on multiple projects at a time, you can lose focus, and therefore, the quality doesn’t necessarily win. It’s plain as that. Plus, you can have issues with mixing up stuff between the projects, to the point where you can’t recall which is which.

            How do I know this?

            I’ve done it very early on with short stories.

            Luckily I’ve never had to worry about this with novels…yet.

            Why do I say yet?


            Currently, I’m working on a new Meleena novel, Rumblings.

            I’m also doing an edit to my very first novel The Cave.

            Plus, eventually, I need to get back to book #3 of the Meleena series, Across The Endless Sea, which I finished, but which I set aside for a few months, more like a year now, to start the fresh-set-of-eyes edit.

            That’s three projects on my mind.

            As Lloyd Bridges infamous line from Sea Hunt goes, “And then, it happened.”

            Yup, Thursday, a week ago, out of the blue, I came up with a super duper, ultra-spiffy idea for a new icky bug. A supernatural thriller that takes place in Las Vegas. I’d tell you more but I’d have to kill you. At least right now.

            As this idea formulated on Thursday and Friday, I wanted to drop everything and start writing furiously at my new icky bug.

            The issue?

            I had not completely formed either A nor B.

            As of that Friday, I had not decided on a title.

            All three of those things are a big no no before starting ANY story, novel OR short.

            Well…that Friday evening, as I was lying down for bed, about to go to sleep, the title hit me. I also had inklings on how to begin (A) and just the beginnings of the ending (B).

            As of that, Sunday, I still didn’t have a fully formed B yet.


            My plate is already full.

            Okay, The Cave has been sitting since 1995, so if I let it slip for another year or two, it’s not going to matter that much.

            Rumblings is another matter. I’m on a tear with it, creatively. I’m just getting started and my characters are deep into the beginnings of that adventure.

            Across The Endless Sea was the next book to be on the slate for my publisher. Eventually, was going to have to hold off on Rumblings, book four, and get back to Sea and get it ready to submit.

            Oh, and one other thing. Not long before the pandemic, I’d submitted another icky bug, The Greenhouse to my publisher and still had not heard word. After this long, I had a suspicion that it was a big no, but until I got final word, I had to be prepared to make a go with that one if I suddenly got the go ahead to get it ready for publication.

            Then, last week, things got turned on their head. After talking to my publisher, they want me to go back and dig up book number three of my Gold series, Palmdale Gold!

            That’s right, I need to drop everything Meleena and concentrate on the next Detach adventure. The advantages are that I’ve already read Palmdale Gold to the writer’s group, but it was in 2011 or 2012! That means I need to look at it with a fresh set of eyes and a whole lot more experience! Plus, I based it on a real lake. Because it’s privately owned, I needed to get hold of the caretaker. Ever since I wrote the story, I’ve wanted to use the real lake in the story, but the owner didn’t want me to. To avoid getting sued, I changed the name and location of the lake.

            Then, guess what? With another tweak, the publisher also wants another crack at The Greenhouse!

            That means dropping everything else and taking on two books at once. So, while I’m not exactly starting from scratch with either one, that’s still multitasking, just with a slightly less workload.


            There’s nothing wrong with multitasking. However, how much can you take on and still keep your creativity and originality?

            Since this is a passion and not a hobby, and let’s not get into the differences, which is an entire different discussion, I love to write. I do it because I need to, I have to, and I love to. That all goes without saying. Yet, I also don’t write on any phony self-imposed deadlines, or schedules.

            Now, if you think all of the above sounds like a schedule or deadline, self-imposed or otherwise, it isn’t really. My publisher isn’t pressuring me for the next release. It’s something I want to do, in my own time. I just want to get some things completed because they’re almost already there, but at the same time, I also want to start something new. In the case of both Palmdale Gold and The Greenhouse, I called and asked what they wanted next, so I solicited them. There is still no deadline, but since I just published Spanish Gold early this year, I figured it was time to see what I could get in the pipeline.

            Can I multitask?

            That is the big question.

            Can I multitask and still keep the creativity original and fresh?

            Can I find the TIME to work multiple angles?

            Or, should I stop one thing dead in its tracks, and concentrate on something else, one at a time? If so, will I forget or lose steam on the other stuff?

            Obviously, I can’t stop everything and work on this new icky bug when I now have Palmdale Gold and The Greenhouse to get ready. However, it looks like I’ll have to shelve Across The Endless Sea, Rumblings, and The Cave at least for now due to time constraints, if nothing else.


            Time is not a factor when it comes to my enthusiasm or commitment.

            I wrote the original draft of The Cave in 1995. As I started editing it a few months ago, even bit by bit, the original excitement was still there even after 26 years. It has not ebbed one iota.

            As I’ve had a somewhat erratic writing schedule with Rumblings, has my enthusiasm or creativity waxed or waned when I sat down to write with it?

            Not one iota.

            Time is not a factor for me.

            I could take off a few months or even years to write on any one of my latest masterpieces (ha ha).

            The question is, could you? Could you stop everything and concentrate on your latest, greatest idea? Or, could you multitask and do both?

            Would working multiple projects suck the life right out of your creativity?

            In the case of Palmdale Gold and The Greenhouse, they are both FINISHED manuscripts that just need tweaking. Tweaking is a whole lot different than creating from scratch. Those two can be multitasked just fine.

            My advice still stands for most writers writing entirely new stuff.

            Complete one project at a time. That way you will have at least completed SOMETHING first. I’ve seen way too many writers create half-cocked fits and starts of stuff and in the end, never finish ANYTHING.

            That’s my biggest point.

            There are way too many writers that are great at starting stuff but way too many of them never finish anything.

            Don’t be one of them!

            Happy writing!


            This article isn’t about what we would normally consider race in the real world, such as African American, Latino, Asian, etc. While it could encompass that, this is more about employing some of the classic races or creatures, or icky bugs such as elves, dwarves, fairies, and such, drawn from Lord Of The Rings, Dungeons & Dragons, or other fairy tale and/or fantasy lore.

            A question that comes up a lot is people asking about portraying these (or even more) creatures accurately.

            Accurately? In a made-up fantasy world? Are you serious?


            When it comes to world building and research, this can be a two-edge sword. When writing fantasy, to me, at least, it’s kind of the point to make up the world. Therefore, any research involved is not so much races and creatures, it’s realistic physical things like castles and flora and fauna and sword fighting and geography, and basic science UP TO A POINT.

            To me, in a made up world, you well…make it up. The only catch is that you have to have some basis for reality as a starting point before you can go off the rails, then it has to make some kind of sense. When you make up rules, you have to make sure these rules are based on logic and you stick with them. That requires you have at least an inkling of the real world before you bend things for your fantasy world. That’s where convention veers into fantasy.

            When it comes to fantasy races and creatures, there never was much basis on reality in the first place! Therefore, why in the world are you bothering with convention in your made up world?


            This is the biggie.

            Fantasy races and creatures have little to no basis in reality. They all came from fairy tales, legends, and most were just plain made up.

            A few were obviously based on reality such as dwarves. Then again, given the way they’re portrayed in fantasy, they’ve gone far astray of reality in many cases.

            If you’re building a world and are sticking to convention because you don’t want to be called on it, my question is why?

            It’s your world! It’s fantasy and is totally made up! There are no rules that say you have to stick with Lord Of The Rings or D&D tradition.

            You don’t have to stick with Grimm specifics for your story.

            While it may be fun to research this stuff, why get uptight about it or freak out because your elves don’t have the correct shaped ears or hair the correct color?

            Why worry because your fairies don’t have the correct color wings or don’t weigh the correct amount?

            Why worry because the dwarves in your world aren’t all miners and some practice magick?

            Why worry if your dragons can’t fly?


            In a completely made up fantasy world, even urban fantasy, which is based on fantasy mixed with the real world, you have a free reign to do what you want. There ARE certain conventions you have to follow.

            The biggest one is that IT HAS TO MAKE SENSE, whatever you do.

            That’s it.

            Does it have to comply with Rule #17B of the D&D Monster Manual (I just made that up – not a direct quote) or Lord Of The Rings, Chapter 37, paragraph 44?

            No, it does not.

            Get over it.


            The reason the genre is called fantasy is because that’s what it is.


            It’s a made up world.

            It only has to make sense, and the writer, YOU, has to set rules based on some kind of reality that you set. The biggie is that these rules have to make sense to the reader.

            Sure, they may have to follow convention to some degree, but that’s the physical aspects of the world. The populace doesn’t have to comply with any of that.

            If you’re going to have an elf that’s eleven feet tall, that might be a stretch. Or, maybe a dwarf that comes in at five hundred pounds? Both of these examples compared to normal sized humans are pushing it. Then, you might want to think of another name for them. I’m just saying.

            Happy writing!


            By the time this gets published, I’ll have just participated in my first book event since COVID hit. It’ll be interesting to see how things panned out. It was called the Local Author’s Literary Fair and was conducted at the main public library here in Las Vegas. Will I have been successful? If so, I’ll tweak this accordingly. In the meantime, I think it’s a good time for a revisit.


For those of you that’ve published books, by whatever means, there comes a time when you have to get out in the world and sell them…or at least attempt to.

            If you’re like me, you still have to work for a living. Even if not, you likely as not try to stay local. That means signing up for as many (or as few, depending on how active you want to be) book signing events as you can. If you live in an isolated area, that may mean zero events, but let’s consider a reasonable in-between situation.

            These events can be invitation only, or sign-up-until-there-are-no-slots-left.

            I can tell you they’re almost always a mixed bag. You never know what kind of crowd, if any, you’re going to get.


            At an event I attended a few years ago, while sitting around waiting for people to show up, we discussed pre-publicity. We were not sure how the organizer publicized the event for us, but as authors, we did our parts as much as we could. However, what does this mean?

            As for myself and many of my co-authors, we relied on social media to put out the word. The flaw with this idea is that we pretty much preached to the choir, to borrow a well-worn cliché. What does this mean? It means that we basically advertised to friends, family, and people that have already bought our book or books! At best, we might see a few of them at the event for moral support, or they might actually buy a book from another author. There’s that possibility.

            On the other hand, I mentioned in an earlier article how I spent significant bucks on pre-publicity on Facebook for my book signing at the local Barnes & Noble. Though it was a successful event, not a single person who showed or bought my book heard about it through Facebook! I know, because I asked.

            That begs the question: Why spend money on a social media blast for an event where there’s a good likelihood nobody at all will show up? I think the gamble would be better at the local slot machines (I live in Las Vegas, after all).


            Sometimes you can just tell when you’re setting up that things are probably not going to go well. You always hope for the best, but since I’m a glass is half full type person, I get the mindset that I’m there for networking. Then, if I sell one book, it’s a better than total success.

            When and if people start showing up, your job is to get them to your table. This is where reading them comes in handy as well. Standing around your table yelling at them to come over doesn’t always cut it. Some people you can just tell have no interest in your stuff. You can wave at them, say hi and invite them over, but if they give you that “look,” don’t press it. If they surprise you later and wander by, fine. If not, move on to the next person, if anyone comes along at all.

            Sometimes, the crowd is so sparse, you end up with other authors wandering by to say hi. This is the networking aspect of the event. Take advantage of that so the event isn’t a total loss.

            If someone stops by to look at your stuff, be prepared! Show interest, have your pitch ready, and make sure to give them your business card(s) and try not to look too disappointed when they nod and move on.

            As I’ve said before, just sitting there twiddling your thumbs, reading, or with your face in your cell phone isn’t going to attract people. On the other hand, even if you have a big crowd of people traipsing by, you can say “hi, what do you like to read” until you turn blue in the face, but if they just walk on by, avoiding eye contact, or make a bee-line to a certain author, don’t press it.

            Oh, and don’t forget the candy bowl, or something to entice them to stop by. At this particular event, I had plenty of takers.


            We’re a diverse bunch, we writers, and nobody writes the same book. That means, if you’re sharing a table, or sunshade, or booth with another writer, don’t be surprised if your partner sells like hotcakes and you don’t. It goes with the territory.

            Just remember that it could very easily be the other way around, and one day it will be.

            One time it just happened to be his day and not mine. I was very happy for my friend. He well-deserved it.

            On the other hand, at this most recent event, we tied and both sold two books.


            Folks, when you’re a no-name author, which unless you’re with the big six, or on the New York Times best-seller list, face it, that’s you, pretty much, you’re going to attend book events where you’re hot and cold.

            I’m sure in comparative ways, this even happens to the big names at times, and it certainly did when they were starting out.

            When any author sells nothing at all, what to do?

            No, and I mean NO event is for nothing.


            You were there.

            Your name was on the marquee or publicity flyer.

            People saw you there.

            Other authors saw you there.

            You talked to other authors and networked.

            You may have connected with and caught up with old friends.

            You must’ve learned at least ONE tidbit of info that may or may not be useful to you in the future.


            I just had a two-book sale event. All of the above was true as well. Since I sold two books instead of just one, I consider it a resounding success, instead of just a success. Two is better than one is better than zero.

            Until then, happy writing!


            In May of this year, I talked about interviews and what, as an author, you’ll eventually have to do if you expect to ever market your book. Okay, some of you may NEVER market your book, but don’t expect it to sell like hotcakes, or at all.

            Some of you can maybe get away with the bare minimum, and some of you may do okay, sort of. Then again, if you put all the time and effort into writing a good book, why not overcome your terminal shyness to at least take on a question/answer session with someone? That form of an interview doesn’t mean speaking in front of a crowd. Then again, I’ve already discussed that issue in the former article.

            Today, I’m going to talk about something else. That is passing on your knowledge. In other words, paying it forward in a more direct way by teaching a class or conducting a training session, two terms for the same thing?


            Since I have a background in training, speaking in front of people goes with the territory. Not to put too fine of a point on it, just being a member of the Henderson Writer’s Group, which is a critique group, reading chapters of any one of my books to the group means I have to speak in front of from tens to dozens of people all at once.

            Aaaagh! Oooh! Aaaah!

            Am I paralyzed with fear? Am I trembling in my shoes?

            Do I barf before I go on stage?

            Uh, no.

            I’ve been speaking in front of people in one form or another since I was in elementary school.

            Just yesterday, as I write this, I was at the Local Authors Literary Fair and there was a signup sheet to volunteer to teach classes at the library. I’ve done it before, so of course, I signed up.


            Because not only do I have a background in teaching, but I like to pay it forward.

            These classes can be fun, and the payout can be tremendous.


            For someone terminally shy, the fear of failure is often a phobia. It’s like any other phobia. Quite often it’s not a phobia at all, but a self-imposed fear brought on by something that is nothing more than an unknown. Why?

            Because you haven’t done it before, and don’t know how to handle it.

            That’s all it is.

            Speaking in front of a crowd is no different that chatting with a group of friends. While some terminally shy have that wallflower syndrome and don’t even speak up amongst friends, some have no problem speaking up among a small group of friends.


            That’s another story.


            Because they aren’t friends yet.

            Some of them may never end up being friends.

            Oh well…

            Consider this.

            Many of them are just as terminally shy as you are.

            Ever thought of that?


            Just think of this. Many of the people in the crowd are in fear of you, the instructor or speaker, of eyeing them, or calling on them. In fact, one of them could be you.

            Ever thought of that?

            Before you get worked up about being the one up there on stage petrified that you’re speaking in front of a crowd, think of those in the audience petrified and hiding in the back, or even somewhere in the middle, that won’t make eye contact with you. They sort of scrunch down, listen, but keep to themselves and try to hide. They’re just as scared as you are that you might pick them out and call on them for some reason.

            Do you think they’re going to point and laugh at you because you stumble over a word, or stutter, or get a fact wrong?

            No. They’re afraid you’re going to pick on them for not paying attention!

            It works both ways.

            Of course, there are those that are aggressive, paying attention, and that are looking at your every move, but they’re more often than not polite and will give you the chance to make your point. As you progress in your talk, they’ll give you the benefit of the doubt and let you have your say.

            You may be bombarded with questions afterward, but the more you speak, the more confidence you gain. You will never be able to do it if you don’t start.


            Some people are just not made for speaking in front of a crowd.

            However, that doesn’t mean you can’t learn to do it and do it effectively. That also doesn’t’ mean you can’t face your fear.

            It also doesn’t mean you have to do it every day, or often just to torture yourself.

            As an author, you only have to do it as often as necessary to let your readers know you are there for them.

            In a way, you owe it to your readers to be available for them.

            That doesn’t mean you need to pay it forward by teaching classes like I love to do. Some of you are not cut out to be teachers. No rule says you have to. An occasional event where you speak to your readers to let them know you appreciate them is fine.

            Maybe a chapter reading, and a pre-talk or pre-speech at a book signing would be nice.


            Speaking in front of a crowd isn’t the end of the world. As a writer and author, it’s part of the deal. However, it doesn’t have to be a psychological barrier to keep you from your readers.

            Happy writing!


            Being a pantser, I can relate to this from the adventure of creating as I go. Maybe if you’re an outliner or some combination inbetween, it comes during that process.

            What I’m talking about is the thrill of creating and/or discovering your story as you go along.


            I’ve alluded to this many times, especially when I’ve talked about new writers who come online and beg others for ideas about what to write about. In my mind it’s like What in the hell are you even doing here?

            Part of the thrill of writing, the joy of it, the urge of it, is the thrill of the discovery.

            You may be sitting around, standing around, driving around, doing some of a thousand mundane things when the idea hits you for a story. It may creep up on you, or it may hit you like a bolt of lightning.

            Whatever the case, when this idea hits you, it can and probably is a real thrill because all you want to do is drop everything (usually) and write it down.

            For a good pantser, it’s figure out A then B and maybe the title. For an outliner, it’s well…sit down and outline it all out, maybe with an actual chapter by chapter outline, or maybe with a bunch of ordered sticky notes.

            Whichever method you use, the thrill never wanes.


            This is where the excitement and thrill starts to wane for some people. While the huge burst of thrill is there when your grand idea pops into your head, once the reality of it all comes crashing down on you, well…you have some work ahead of you!

            For some, that means actual work!

            Not only the mechanics of writing are involved, but plotting and testing that thrill of an idea. Is your idea realistic? Can it be put to the smell test?

            Uh oh!


            There’s nothing that says the thrill has to be dampened just because reality takes a swing at it.

            Once your great idea gets that huge dose of reality thrown at it, you find while the original concept sounded great in your head, on paper, there were issues. That doesn’t mean you still can’t make it work. None of this means the thrill can’t be any less.

            Imagination is a key part of all this. Your imagination is the doorway to maintaining that thrill, and in fact, is the key to keeping the thrill going.


            While writing to some is considered work, because they may either not have the chops, or just don’t like the mechanics as well as the outcome, the thrill may wane considerably once they get to work.

            In my case, the thrill never wanes from the time I first think of the idea until I type “the end” figuratively at the end of the book. Oh, and just to be clear, that IS figuratively because I never actually type “the end” at the end of my books!

            I enjoy every part of the creative process. The whole thing is a thrill. To give an example. Right now, I’m editing Palmdale Gold. I wrote it over a decade ago and I’m still getting a thrill on the umpteenth edit! I got a thrill writing A and B and the title, and a thrill as I wrote every single chapter. It never ends for me.


            If you’re one of those tortured soul types, go ahead and grovel in your misery. There’s nothing I can do for you.

            However, if writing is a passion for you, if you’re really in this for the thrill, then from the discovery of the idea right through the creation and on to the editing should be a thrill.

            I wish you all the best of luck on your journey and happy writing!


            My original article on world building appeared in 2014 and I’d already alluded to the subject numerous times in the 186 articles I’d written by that time. Jump now to 2021 and the count is 563 articles. I’ve covered it in numerous forms, many more times.

            Something that has come up lately is do you world build first, and then now what? The specific question that stuck with me is this one writer who spent a lot of time building a world, but is now stuck and doesn’t know how to start writing.

            I had to do a double take on that.

            This person had some huge inspiration to create this vast fantasy world, yet never bothered to do the basics, like had a story in mind before they ever thought of creating the world in the first place.

            I suppose that could happen. The cart before the horse, and I don’t apologize for the cliché.

            I may not have the circumstances quite right, and maybe the person DOES have a story in mind. The problem may be that he or she doesn’t know the fundamentals of story telling yet. It could be that they never formulated A and B. It could be a host of other things as well.


            I’ll say right off that world building isn’t story.

            World building is just that. It’s building the world in which you tell the story.

            It’s not like the world you build tells the story itself. It just sets up the environment, or the frame, in which you can now create some kind of tale without worrying about the semantics of place.

            Therefore, worldbuilding isn’t story, it’s PLACE ONLY.



            Here we go. They aren’t the same thing. They could be blended in as you go, but strictly speaking, world building is creating a setting for the story, but has little (or may have) little to do with the story itself.

            In general terms, creating a world may have certain influences and consequences of how the story develops. Things like the weather, creatures, magic or magick, races, geography can all have an effect on the plot, story, and influence the actions of the characters.

            However, that’s not the outline.

            The outline is a separate thing entirely.

            With the outline, it would be prudent to refer to the already built world as you outline.

            That would make your story come in three steps.

            #1 Build the world.

            #2 Outline.

            #3 Write the story.


            If you’re a plotter, are you going to go through all three steps in order, like our hapless person who was stuck at stage two (or three)?

            Or, are you going to go right into #2 and start outlining?

            Or, are you going to do a combination of #1 and #2 before you ever start working on #3?

            There’s no hard and fast rule.

            As for me, being a pantser, I cut to the chase and just go for #3 and don’t even worry about either #1 or #2. That would just suck the life right out of all of my creativity. This is something I’ve discussed many times here at Fred Central.

            It’s like I don’t agonize over every word, every sentence and every paragraph. I blurt it all out and get the ideas down and worry about editing later. Of course, over the twenty-six years I’ve been doing it (so far), I’m a good bit more proficient at it, so my chops are a bit better than when I first started. Therefore, when I get to the first edit, I have less of a mess to fix. That gives me the freedom to create on the fly. My key, of course is to always have A, B and the title before I ever start. That way, I have a start (A) and a finish (B) and a title (main theme) to write to.

            Any world building I do on the fly. I keep track of it with an encyclopedia which I constantly refer to as I add new terms. NOTE: I also add new names and terms into the spell check so I consistently spell them the same way.


            Not everyone can work on the fly.

            World building first seems to me to be putting the cart before the horse, cliché again. Maybe that works for some people, but I’d think the writer should at least come up with the stories they want to tell first. At least jot the main ideas down, THEN build the world. During that world building process, the story may tweak a bit, but that’s okay. At least you’ll still have some idea of your direction when you finish building this big wide world.

            I may have got this writer’s intent wrong with his question. If so, it still doesn’t change my point.


            As tempting as it is to create this big fantastic world, you’d better come up with a story to tell and not expect this world to inspire you. Maybe it will, but it might tell you nothing at all. Don’t let that happen.

            Happy writing!


            For many of us, we have a certain genre, or style we’re used to when we write.

            For some, we’re all over the place, especially starting out.

            For others, there IS not one set style. This probably isn’t for you.


            Let’s consider the average writer, someone who’s been at this for at least a few years.

            You’ve been busy working on a (or a series) of novels. More than likely, you’re used to writing a certain way. In other words, you’ve developed a style, so you’re used to writing to that norm. Maybe you’re diversified and also write other things on the side. Is that writing out of your norm? Maybe.

            You’re a busy writer. You write both novels and short stories. They’re both fictional. You write both in either third or maybe even first person. You may use past or present tense as your go-to style as well.

            You could be a non-fiction writer. Your books may be historical, technical or scientific. The same for your short stories.

            You may be writing nothing but memoirs as your forte.


            This is where you mix things up.

            Let’s take my case.

            In fiction, I cannot stand to read first-person. However, when it comes to autobiographical writing, I write first-person. Why? Because I’m writing it from my own myopic perspective. It happened to me, it’s from my point of view.

            I’ve stated over and over again here at Fred Central that I’ll never publish my memoir, at least as a book. That doesn’t prevent me from doing the occasional short story. In fact, I’ve published quite a few.

            Does the transition from third to first cause an issue with me?

            In a word, no.

            Since it’s my perspective, myopic or otherwise, it’s easy. I have no trouble with either the perspective, the pronouns or any other part of the story. The key is that it’s SHORT. I’m quite capable of creating a short…as in a chapter-length-short-enough story to maybe hold a person’s interest. However, in my case, since I don’t have a compelling life story and am not a celebrity, I don’t have enough to keep that going to justify an entire novel-length tome.

            I even once wrote a very short, as in one-page, fictional story using present-tense. The reason I did it was to throw people off, them all knowing how much I hate present-tense. I pulled it off and nobody guessed it was me. I eventually turned it into a regular past-tense story.

            I went out of my norm to write something else.

            Seeing as how I’ve been at this twenty-six years, plus I was a technical writer for a decade, I have the chops to pull this off, at least I hope so!

            For you to do the same, it all depends.

            If you’re relatively new to writing, and are still experimenting around, maybe you’re already all over the place. You may already do all of this in a single book, given a few I’ve read, or tried to read recently. On the other hand, maybe you DO stick to one style, but are stumped when you want to try something out of your norm.

            What do you do?


            For most writers, switching out of the norm isn’t going to be rocket science. Maybe you’ll stumble a bit. Then again, when you try a style you’re not comfortable with, you may end up with a huge mess. It could be that going out of your norm is just not right for you. Then again, maybe it’s all mental and these roadblocks are artificial.

            Why are you writing out of the norm in the first place?

            Do you want to try something new?

            Do you want to try a novel instead of short stories? How about short stories instead of a novel?

            Do you want to try first-person instead of third? Present instead of past? Past instead of present?

            Do you want to do non-fiction instead of fiction?

            Do you want to switch genres?

            All of these things can be done, but maybe they’re not meant to be. Then again, as you gain your chops as a writer, you SHOULD be able to do any of them if you set your mind to it. I know I can. It’s just a matter of wanting to or needing to. In my case, I know what I like and what I know works for me. I’ve been at this a long time and know what works best not only for me, but for my audience and for a lot of other people, regardless of genre.

            While I can maybe go places others can’t, at least as easily, I choose not to.

            You, maybe starting out, or as seasoned as I am, can make your own choices and do what you want. You can go out of the norm and not be traumatized by it.

            Now, why am I bringing this up?

            Right now, I’m writing an autobiographical story for an anthology. It’s in first-person. You’ll NEVER find me doing that with any of my fictional stories. It’s out of my norm, per se, but when I think about it, for short stories, especially given what I’ve had published, I guess it IS the norm.

            Okay, you will NEVER find me writing another present-tense story of ANY kind! I’ve been outed already so they’ve got my number on that one!

            Happy writing!


            Okay, the article isn’t really about that, per se, but about the subject of additional skills in general required to be a writer.

            Last week (as I write this), or maybe the week before, that exact question came up on one of the forums (Facebook, of course), and my answer was a resounding NO! Of course, I was polite in my response, but I did mention that I’m allergic to math.

            When I think about it, it IS a legitimate question. There’s some logic to it.


            When you’re a plotter, it could be assumed it takes a mathematical mind to map out a plot in a logical timeline or linear way, and to lock all the elements into place.

            That seems like a logical assumption.

            However, that’s not the case in real life.

            People with math skills don’t necessarily have anything to do with people with plotting skills. In fact, people with extreme or too focused logic skills might have a very hard time with imaginative creative skills. I’m not saying some don’t, it’s just that there’s no direct correlation. On the other hand, without skill at logic, one cannot put together a plot that makes sense. It’s a matter of degrees.


            While one may well be very good at one skill does not make them very good at another.

            Someone very good at math, might also be decent or very good at plotting or writing. A good mathematician might be terrible at plotting, or so rigid that their stories are flat and dry and have no life to them because their imagination is too stripped due to their rigid logic.

            Another person with no math skills may be great at plotting and writing and be no good at math only because they were introduced to that skill in the wrong way. Or, it could be that they really aren’t any good at math. They can plot and are decent enough at logic to put together a good plot, but when it comes to numbers, that all falls apart.

            On the other hand, having skills at many things can play into your writing by being able to draw from those experiences into your writing. We’ll get to those in a moment.

            Someone very good at proper English and grammar may still suck at writing. One does not make another. Properly being able to put sentences together is a huge help. However, if one doesn’t have any imagination, there’s no point in having a great skill you can’t use for anything except technical writing.

            At the same time, having a super wild imagination does one no good if you can’t put it down into something comprehensible.

            Being a good athlete does not make one a good writer any more than being a good mechanic or a musician. Those skills can all be great to draw on for story purposes, but the key to writing is imagination AND an ability to be able to put sentences together AND be able to write, have a desire to write, AND be able to put something together in a logical fashion. The extraneous skills, whether math, accounting, English, grammar, bird watching, carpenter, mechanic, spelunker, are all things you can draw experience from. The key is still being able and having a desire to tell a good story.


            You don’t have to be good at anything else in particular to be a good writer except be decent enough at English and grammar so as not to be too much of a burden to your editor. The desire to write and it being a passion, at least to me, are the most important. If it’s a desire instead of a hobby, then you will not only find the time to write, you will continually hone your skills. You will find the method of writing that works best for you, whether it being a pantser or a plotter. You will draw on life experiences, and/or research for your ideas. Some of those life experiences may include other skills you already have, but I’ll just bet a lot of them DON’T. For many, that may include math!

            Happy writing!


            A question that comes up a lot on the forums is that as an author, do you need a web site?

            If you’re going to publish, it behooves you to establish a web site.

            I’ve discussed this several times here at Fred Central, the latest as of 2020.

            Web sites are relatively cheap, considering how much you’ll have to fork out for marketing.

            What takes the time is having something to write about.


            The number one question every newbie asks is that if they have a web site, what do they put on it?

            Good question!

            If you bother to put up a web site, it should be more than just a place holder for your books.


            Well…it’s going to get boring pretty fast, especially before and in-between books.

            There’s not going to be much to look at except maybe an occasional blurb about the book, the cover, or pretty much the same thing Amazon or Barnes & Noble already post for you. So, why should you go through the hassle to regurgitate that?

            You need a platform, something to attract readers and fans.


            While I’m repeating myself from earlier articles, I don’t mind going over it again.

            A platform is a subject near and dear to your heart to attract readers between books.

            It’s a way to keep them from forgetting you’re out there!

            It’s also a way to engage them and keep them interested.

            A platform is usually but not always writing oriented, or of some subject somehow related to your book or books.

            Say you write romances. Your platform could be something to do with romance.

            Your book series could be fantasy. Your platform could be about medieval armor or fighting.

            Your book or series could be westerns. Your platform could be about old time western recipes.

            My platform, as you can see is about writing.

            I’ve been doing it now since 2012 and post an article every Tuesday. I now have 566 articles out there. Admittedly my following is modest, but I don’t care. I’ll take what I can get. I love writing and will continue to do so. Some of you may have greater or lesser success. It’s up to you.


            As I like to say, creating a web site isn’t all that hard and there are numerous hosts you can choose. It’s not rocket science.

            Use it wisely, Grasshopper.

            Happy writing!


            This was my first true article, number two, posted way back in 2011. I thought it apt to start with something every writer needs right off. While I’ve covered it elsewhere, sometimes directly as well as indirectly, if you’re just starting out, this is something you need to learn. Below is the original article, tweaked, of course, with updates in the ten years since I originally posted it (including new headings).


            I’ve been thinking of a good first post for my new web site and the thing that came to mind was a subject that I think all writers must learn up front. Humility. What do I mean by that?

            As writers, we express ourselves through words. We tell stories, pour our hearts out, put our hearts on our sleeves for you, the reader, to slice and dice and tear us down without thought for our feelings, hopes dreams…

Okay, I’m laying it on a bit thick.

            To some writers, what I just said is the absolute truth.

I’ve got news for you. In this sometimes ugly business, you have to develop a thick skin. When you write something and put it out for everyone to see, you must be prepared for unfiltered responses. It’s just like when a woman puts on a dress and her kid says “Mommy, you look fat.” Or when a teenage boy thinks he does something heroic and the girl of his dreams yawns and says “Joe, that was really stupid.”


            When we write, we have to be prepared for both sides of the coin, the praise and the criticism. No matter how hard you work at something, no matter how cool the inspiration, at least half of the people are going to love it while the other half hate it. Count on it. While one person is going to slap you on the back and tell you how great it is, the other is going to slap you in the face and tell you it sucks.

            That’s just the end result, what your final audience is going to see.


What about your peers, other writers? If you want to be a really great writer, I’ll repeat this—You have to learn humility. No matter how long you’ve been at this, no matter how much practice you’ve had, you’re never going to be perfect.

            As an editor, I know this firsthand. I’ve done a lot of editing for friends and colleagues. In my 26 years at this, I’ve learned a lot about writing, both personally and professionally. I put it to practice. However, I also know that when you’re too close to something, you can’t see the forest through the trees. I know that’s a cliché, but it’s true. I’ve even wrote separate articles about that which have featured here at various times. When I write, I try to follow all the rules I’ve learned over many years of practice. However, during my creative process, I follow a stream-of-consciousness and sometimes skip over a few of those rules. The idea is to get the ideas down while they’re fresh in my head. I’ll worry about fixing the manuscript later. I write much cleaner than I used to, but I still make many of the mistakes I find when I edit other friend’s manuscripts. Does this mean I’m a bad writer? Of course not! That shouldn’t mean you are either. That’s what editing and writer’s groups and beta readers are for.

            When you write something and give it to someone for a critique, don’t get all bent out of shape or want to quit writing if you get it back covered in red ink.


            If you’re searching for someone to critique your work and they give you the “tough love” treatment, belittle you, give you harsh criticism, or make you feel like crap, run, don’t walk away from that person! You’re NOT getting a good critique! There’s a difference between constructive criticism and being demeaned by an asshole. The world doesn’t need these people. Trust me on this. If you consider sharing a manuscript with someone and you ever hear the words “tough love,” “brutal truth,” or “blunt honesty” in the conversation, you don’t need to be dealing with that person. You’ve learned one thing. They don’t have a clue how to be constructive and diplomatic. You’ll just get frustrated dealing with someone like that.


            Say you find some great people, get past all the editing and your story or book is published. It makes it to Amazon or Barnes & Noble and the reviews start rolling in. Now’s where you see the real unbiased reviews by total strangers. They can be outstanding, or very cruel. The cruel ones can be personal attacks, attacks on your writing style, holes in the plot or story that nobody else noticed, or something completely out of left field. My personal favorite is something to do with Kindle that has nothing to do with the story. Be prepared.



            Writing has a lot of ups and downs. I’ve weathered the storm, so far. Here I am 26 years later. You can do it too. Just learn a bit of humility.

            Happy writing!


            Of course, this subject came up on the Facebook forums so I had to think about it after I gave my own answer.

            As a writer, one has to ask, why would you take a hiatus from writing?

            There are many reasons this might occur. I’m going to delve into that a bit.


            I’m making a big assumption here, given my personal feelings about writing. To me, it’s a passion and not just a passing interest or a hobby. Therefore, if you’re like me, it’s something we have to do. There’s no room for a hiatus. There are times when we may not physically be able to due to unforeseen circumstances, but that’s NOT a hiatus. That’s life – not the same thing.

            A hiatus is a break, a respite to get away from it for one reason or another.


            I’m not going to go into the technical definitions from the dictionary, but for our intents and purposes, a hiatus is taking a break from writing. As I said above, this is NOT due to unforeseen circumstances, this is a break because one does not FEEL like writing for whatever reason.


            BOREDOM – Oh please! This one is all too common, especially in today’s world of impatience and immediate gratification. A writer may hit a few roadblocks, or a bit of a creativity issue and get bored with the whole thing. The immediate gratification isn’t there. Time to take a hiatus and navel gaze for a while.

            LOST THE MUSE – This goes right along with boredom in that the writer is out of ideas for the moment and doesn’t know where to go with their story. Instead of starting something else, or maybe because they struggled with starting their initial idea in the first place, they just stop and take a hiatus.

            FRUSTRATION WITH THE BUSINESS – Oh, geez. Think even established writers are immune to this? As a writer for the past 26 years, the business is an annoying side-effect of what I do but not the main thing. For some, they cannot overcome the business side and it stifles their will to write so they take a hiatus to get away from it all.

            ABILITY TO HONE THEIR CHOPS – Some people just don’t pick up the skills (or think they do) as well as others. Some genuinely don’t get it as well as others, while some can write just fine but don’t think they do. Some will never be happy with what they write no matter what. The mix is there. The ones that can’t take the stress take a hiatus to get away from it all.

            OTHER THINGS – There are a myriad of other excuses to take a hiatus from writing, but those are the biggies. Remember, this is NOT about physical and mental things that stop you for non-writing reasons.


            In 26 years so far, I have NEVER taken a hiatus from writing. As long as I’ve had a computer available to type, I’ve written. I’ve been in some pretty unusual circumstances over that time span and have still managed to write. Stress, moving, illness, temporary housing and whatever have never stopped me. I still write. It may not always be the latest MS, but it’s something almost daily. It could be a review, posts on Facebook, a short story or a new novel. Something.

            Back in 1995 when I discovered writing was a passion, I was dead serious that it was a passion and not a hobby. That’s me. I’m not you.


            A hiatus from writing is a break, a vacation from writing.

            Is it a break from some frustration? A chance to recharge your batteries? Is it a way to avoid some issue you’re having with writing?

            You need to look at why you’re writing in the first place. Is this really a passion or a hobby? Maybe you NEED a hiatus to recharge your batteries. Maybe that’s just the way you work because you’re not like me or anyone else. There’s nothing wrong with taking a break if it works the magic for you. We all operate differently. However, make sure you’re taking this hiatus for the right reasons. Also, is it really a hiatus or something else?


            The length of this break is entirely up to you. If you need to take a hiatus, nobody can give you or define what’s a time limit. You have to decide when you’re ready to come back.

            When you do, what are you going to do? By the time you’re ready to come back you should have some idea of where to start. If you ask people where to start, you probably aren’t ready yet. Someone the other day asked just this question.


            I’d venture to guess that for most of us that are in this for the long haul, there’s no such thing as a hiatus. There may be breaks from writing, but they have nothing to do with a hiatus. Yet, not everyone works that way and if you do take a hiatus, you need to feel right to come back and know why, when and what you’re coming back for.

            Happy writing!


            I guess it had to dawn on me one day, if not finally sink in with something I already knew.

            What I write and read isn’t mainstream.

            Yeah, a big revelation.

            I “literally” read a book a week if not more. I’ve so far published four of the dozen novels I’ve written so far, not counting the others I’ve started, plus dozens more short stories. Out of all that, when I look at the publications I read either on line or in print, when it comes to representation in their book sections, mentioning anything close to what I read or write is extremely remote.


            To be specific, let’s talk two examples. Entertainment Magazine and the web site. While other sources may have book sections, which I’ve checked out on occasion with the same result, these are the two I stick with for mainly other reasons. Okay, it’s a limited selection and in no way represents the big picture. There are other probably better publications to go to for books, but these two, at least as a sample, give a picture of what a lot of people look at when they sample what’s available in books. These are popular publications.

            Now, keep in mind that they’re not the only ones and I HAVE sampled others, but for various reasons, I have not taken a shine to them. Given genre, I could go for icky bug for instance and I’m sure there are plenty of horror publications on the magazine rack that have book sections if I want to be plastered with Stephen King and Stephen King and Stephen King. Of course, I’m being sarcastic, but there are other great icky bug authors I’m sure are represented.

            The same could be said for fantasy publications, or western or maybe even thrillers or romance.

            The thing is that they’re too specific and isolated.

            When it comes to mainstream and generic, something like Entertainment and should cover all the bases but what they do cover is not even close.

            Okay, they cover Stephen King, which I don’t read, but even THEY never get to people like Dean Koontz, Preston & Child, Lee Child, David Baldacci, or hardly any other thriller writer except on very rare occasions. When they do, you’ll get a micro-sized blurb for some new book they have, or something controversial they said.

            In fact, to prove my point, the last time any of those writers ever got mentioned was when Lee Child said something controversial about something.

Even Stephen King doesn’t get much of a spread.

            It’s all literary stuff and new voices and causes and well, definitely great stuff if you’re into a certain type of cause-based literature. However, if you’re a genre writer who’s just some schmuck writing, as in the little guy or gal, an indie, self-published, with a small press, or a “ding ding” regular non-millenial thriller writer, someone without a cause, forget it.

            I’m not saying those of us off the beaten path are not all older, younger, millennials, gen Xers or whatever, we just don’t fit into the literary or cause categories these publications go for.

            I read daily. I read Entertainment whenever they bother to mail me one, which is hardly worth the price considering the inconsistent delivery. The long story on that is that I somehow got a subscription to it years ago and many times, metaphorically, can read what I’m interested in by the time I walk in from the mailbox. That’s another story in itself. Somehow, I still end up getting it and browsing it just to check to see if there’s anything remotely interesting in it, which most of the time there’s not. Yet, I still keep getting it. Go figure. I always check the book section and am always disappointed.


            Do I feel isolated?

            Do I care?

            I suppose I could seek out other magazines or web sites that cater to my specific interests. Then I wouldn’t be going mainstream but would be in my bubble. Is that a good thing?

            Last, I want to say that I’m not complaining, just making a point to all of you who may feel the same way if you happen to think about what you’re doing and get stuck in a rut, or are looking in the wrong places.

            I’m not. I just happen to notice these things in publications I read for other reasons. I don’t take what they say seriously because I have as much interest in what they say about books as I do in watching tumbleweeds cross the road. Just something to avoid so they don’t get tangled up in the engine.

            I need my engine clear so it doesn’t overheat or bog down.

            Do I feel isolated from the mainstream?

            I never considered myself part of the mainstream to begin with. I cringe at the thought.

            You need to think about that when you read a mainstream publication. You need to think about that if you never see any book mentioned that you’re even remotely interested in. Does that mean you’re not writing the right thing?


            It means you’re not looking in the right publication.

            Seek them out unless you have no interest in those publications for other reasons.

            Maybe, just out of curiosity, check out one of those genre magazines and see what’s cooking in your field of interest. You might be surprised and find you’re not alone. Your favorite authors might have been there all along.

            Happy writing!


            The other day, a question came up on one of the fantasy forums about whether it’s required to have a romance thread in every fantasy forum.

            That brings up the bigger question.

            Do you, as an author, need to bring up a romance thread in any story you write?

            Before I give my personal answer, let’s look at romance and its ins and outs.


            Romance is the affectionate and emotional attraction between two people. It can lead to mental or physical interplay. Sounds like a mouthful, but that’s basically what it is.

            It’s especially attractive to the female gender, but only especially, because it’s not exclusive to female readers. Some of all sexes and persuasions expect it in whatever they read.

            There are those that do not.


            Romance can be a trope, well-overused by some. I think that’s what the poster was talking about in the fantasy forum.

            There’s nothing mandatory about having romance in any story except the romance genre. In any other genre, it’s almost obligatory, but can also be considered cliché and a trope. In some genres, it’s an inconvenience and an annoyance. In some genres it has no place at all.

            Yet, that never stops writers from including it if they so desire.


            When you’re displaying emotional connections between people in a story, there can’t help but be attractions, both emotional and sometimes physical. It’s how far you want to take it. In some cases, depending on how intense the story goes, this attraction may never get beyond the mildest flirting or inner unspoken feelings. In other cases, it may go beyond into real, spoken and even the physical.

            It all depends on what the story calls for or where you, as the writer, want it to go.

            Romance has its place, but are you prepared for it?


            If you don’t know what you’re doing, or are not feeling it, even if you draw your story into a corner where a romantic entanglement becomes inevitable, maybe you just don’t have the chops to pull it off. Then, it either becomes porn, flat, or decidedly unromantic. Or it may come off as blatantly cliché in which case it’ll be awkward and insincere to your audience.

            This is where romance is likely to not have any place in your story and you’re probably better off steering clear of it and better to go for your forte, whatever that may be.

            Or, you can seek out a forum or a training session on writing it effectively, if it’s something you really need to include in your story.

            The thing is, does it really need to be there?


            I’m not a huge fan of romance.

            The thing for me is that when I read a book and there are romantic scenes, I tend to skip them, or scan them just to see if there’s some key plot element I need for future reference.

            Not my thing.

            So, with that in mind, why would I write it?

            A few of my stories have a mild bit of romance, dancing around it a bit, but only one has anything specific in it. That manuscript isn’t published yet.

            I want to leave the heavy stuff for the authors that have the expertise.

            If I wanted to get into some heavy romantic scenes, I know just the person and the sessions where I could learn to do it effectively. The thing is that I have no interest in it.

            I repeat, not my thing.


            Romance is a biological and emotional part of life. Yet, there’s not a rule or law that says you have to write it into every story. It’s entirely up to you whether you want to include it into yours.

            If you do, make sure you know what you’re doing, Grasshopper.

            Happy writing!


            After participating in IST (International Steel Tournament) at the Ren Faire in Las Vegas last week, I was able to once again, do unintentional research into medieval combat. Once in a while, someone on one of the Facebook fantasy forums asks a question about combat with weapons or armor. In a nutshell, the way it’s portrayed in a story versus the real world is far different. The same could be said for movies.

            Given the era most fantasy is set in, armor, swords, maces, bows and the like go with the flora, fauna, and icky bugs. It’s part of the deal. Just like the flora and fauna, there’s usually only a touch of realism, if any at all.


            Have you ever seen anyone in real armor?

            What does real chain mail look like or how much does it weigh?

            How about studded leather?


            A mix?

            The reality is a lot different from what you might expect, and don’t go by what you see in the movies either. Remember that most movies are an illusion! Some of that stuff you see on screen might be rubber or plastic or aluminum!

            Armor, at least the real stuff, is heavy, awkward, and extremely uncomfortable to wear. It takes a very strong person to be able to wear it for any length of time. To travel long distances and to be able to move with any dexterity? Well…

            So, how do we portray our characters all decked out in such stuff in our stories?

            Yeah, I thought so.


            Ever actually held a bastard sword?

            A two-handed sword?

            A mace?

            A lance?

            Any idea how heavy and awkward these weapons are?

            Now think of the actors in movies twirling these huge hunks of metal around like they’re made of plastic.


            In real life, just think of your hero not only lugging your huge weapon around, but then whipping it out to slay the latest icky bug.


            Now many portray their riding beast decked out in armor. Even if so, consider mounting that poor beast saddled in something that heavy. Then consider you mounting it decked out in your own armor, along with your favorite weapon.

            Need I say more?

            I will anyway.

            In the Alcazar de Segovia in Spain, there’s a room with a display of a fighter in full plate sitting on a horse in full plate. I really feel for the poor horse, which is a special breed strong enough to be able to handle the weight. The fighter has to be lifted onto the hose with a crane.

            That’s right.

            A crane.

            That’s the reality of armor, let alone holding any kind of serious weapon.


            Of course, the solutions are that first off, your world is fantasy, so the laws of physics simply don’t apply.

            Second, your characters are unbelievably stronger than humans even if they are human. Or, they can be of other races that are stronger than humans.

            Third, the cure-all for many such things is magic, or in my world, magick.

            Fourth, fantasy metals such as mithril or something you made up on your own which is stronger and lighter than real-world metals.

            There are many ways to skip the laws of real-world physics to make it all work.


            This issue with armor and weapons isn’t just for fantasy settings.

            The difference is that in a real-world setting, you must explain how the character overcomes the physical issues with some kind of technology. That’s something that in fantasy you can explain away (or not) with magick or whatever. In a real-world setting, you’re bound by reality. In the case if a real-world medieval setting, uh oh, you’d better do your research! With combat fighting in armor and with swords and such, it’s a lot different from what you might think! There were many huge battles fought but they were not often what was pictured in the movies.

            Be sure to check the reality first before plunging in.

            A good Ren Faire is a great place to start!

            Happy writing!


            I’ve discussed religion in your writing in both 2017 and 2019, but it keeps coming up in the Facebook (and no, I still won’t call it Meta) forums. While I harken back to (mainly) the 2019 article, I’m also going for my latest take on the subject, which is really how I’ve always felt about using religion in a story (or otherwise) context.

            In world building, I discussed that you cannot forget about “relijjin.” Yup, that often uncomfortable subject that quite often gets people riled up, fired up, on their toes and ready to rumble. There are many ways to use belief systems that color a world. This not only applies to fantasy, but real world stories as well.


            There’s no rule book that says you have to use religion in any book you write. It’s purely a matter of taste and whether the story calls for it. It can be a matter of plot or just color. If neither calls for it, don’t add it “juss cuz.” There has to be a reason. On the other hand, if you’re creating a world, such as in fantasy, it adds more realism and color to have real-world cultural thingies like religion, just as there are different languages.

            If you’re a super-religious person, you may think religion goes hand-in-hand with whatever you’re writing about. However, it can also be a huge turnoff for a lot of readers. To gain a wider audience, it’s better to stay neutral.


            This plays into regions as much as the characters you utilize in the story. If you’re story is in South America, Catholicism is going to play into local religion and culture. If you’re in the Middle East, Islam is going to be hard to avoid.

            Here in the You Ess And A, it can be a mixed bag of beliefs and you can go with one of hundreds of beliefs based on region, or any grab bag you want.

            You can disregard religion if you choose. It doesn’t have to be part of your world.

            I must mention that by religion, this could also include atheism, agnostic, and non-religious beliefs, because after all, they are beliefs – philosophies of life. If they somehow play a key role in the story, use them.


            In world building for fantasy and science fiction, religion and belief systems are hard to ignore when creating your world. They’re integral parts of almost any society. With that comes the complexity of rules, prejudices, rituals, icons, and all the trappings. How far you want to go with it (or not) is up to you.

            Does said religion dominate the story?

            Does it only play a minor role?

            Does this religion affect the plot?

            Is this religion just color?


            This is where things get dicey.

            It’s one thing to add real-world authenticity to your story, regardless of genre. It’s quite another to add an agenda. If it’s simply reflecting your observations of the world, fine.

            If you have an agenda, watch out.

            If you’re out to preach, you could alienate a lot of readers.

            You have to step carefully when you add in a religion and start doing stuff with it that comes off not only as preachy, but promoting a specific agenda.

            If you slip in a bit of philosophy, and don’t shove it down the reader’s throat, that’s one thing.

            If you bludgeon them over the head with it, jerk them out of the story with blatant preaching or bashing, you’ve not only violated their trust, but alienated them as future readers.


            What you now have done is made yourself a pariah.

            What’s worse is if you’re so religious, you’re blind to what you’re doing. When someone points it out to you and you get upset/freak out because someone illustrates what’ll happen, you do nothing to change it. Your book fails to sell, and you become a pariah, labeled as a religious nut. I’ve seen it happen before.

            Some embrace that and your book does succeed in a niche market. However, a few have seen the light and changed their tune and had success in the conventional market.

Whether a niche is for the better for them is hard to say. It all depends on what their original goal is or was. For some, preaching was their point all along.


            Religion can be used to great effect to color your world. It can also be avoided if so desired. Either way, if used correctly, it’s a tool to help your world come to life. Used incorrectly, it can ruin a good thing.

            Choose wisely, Grasshopper!

            Happy writing!


            You would think after all this time and 573 articles later, it would be hard to come up with something new to write about. After haunting the multiple Facebook forums for years now, I think of the same ole same ole questions that come up every day, sometimes the same question from different people twice…three times in the same day. It’s like people jump onto a forum and don’t bother to read any of the posts and just post their question.

            Part of that could be that there’s no way to index anything in the forums. They’re just not built that way.

            I have enough trouble with my weekly Saturday updates for each of my book sites. They are a real pain to post in Facebook. Not user friendly at all.


            Those of you that have been following me a long time (I’ve been around in a web presence since 2012), must have noticed all my “revisited” articles. I try to wait at least a year or two before I repeat or revisit anything.

            It’s not out of laziness, but because the subject keeps coming up over and over again, and when it’s really hot, I feel it’s time to bring it up again. This may help attract new visitors to my web site (duh, marketing people), but also to help new writers. That is, after all, half the reason I do these articles.

            While I’ll admit I’m no best-selling author, in 26 years at this passion, I have gained just a tad of experience going through the ropes. With four published books under my belt, traditionally published books, I’ve learned a few tidbits and with my platform, which every author needs, why not pass on what I know?


            All advice is worth repeating to new eyes.

            I get new followers every week. It’s not like hundreds, but I get one or two here and there and to me, that’s a success.

            Whether any of you actually read this stuff I don’t worry about. It’s out there in the ether and there for posterity. Maybe space aliens or someone in the future will stumble across it someday and glean something useful out of it if you all don’t in the here and now. That’s fine with me.

            When I spot something on the forums, or in my rumblings around town or in my head or dealings with writing in general that I deem worthy of repeating, you all will be the first to know. If it’s a rehash, or déjà vu then so be it. It may remind you of something you forgot. You never know.

            You remember the phrase, “It bears repeating”?

            Happy writing!


            This subject comes up a lot on the forums and I was surprised to discover that I haven’t specifically dedicated an article to it. I’m pretty sure I’ve discussed it at some point, at least I think I have but I couldn’t find it, so here goes.


            Multitasking is a relatively new word, but it applies to a whole host of different things. In writing, it could apply to multiple projects. What does that mean exactly?

            We’re going to delve into that.


            Whenever one does a single project, there’s a certain amount of multitasking involved, or there can be, depending on the individual.

            If it’s just writing, you, as the writer, whether a pantser or a plotter, do the writing. You may do some editing, just write, stop and do a bit of research. You may keep writing and do research on the side, go back and fix something already written to tweak, then stop and rewrite something. Or, you may think of something great and research before you get to that point while still catching up to that spot, bla bla bla.

            All of this is a form of multitasking. While it isn’t working different projects, it’s in the same vein. The complexity isn’t on the same level.

            For a pantser it’s a lot different than for a plotter. Usually, I can only go by anecdotal evidence, since I’m a pantser. A plotter maps most everything out before they ever start writing. If, while in the process of writing what they carefully mapped out, they’re struck with another brilliant idea that upsets the entire process, do they stop and regroup? Do they stick with the plan? I don’t know for sure. I’ve talked with some, and the answers vary from sticking with the original idea, to scrapping everything past that point, to coming to a full stop and re-plotting past that point. The multitasking takes on a different aspect.

            Keep in mind that this is still the same single project. No other distractions are interfering.


            Some people are bursting with ideas. They can’t settle on one, or work on one at a time.

            Is this you?

            To me it seems like an easier task for a pantser.

            For a plotter, you must work multiple plots and draw energy away from each path. Then again, I suppose it isn’t any different from the pantsers deal either.


            The biggest issue that comes up, which I’ve wondered about, is confusing the story lines.

            Luckily for me, I’ve never had this issue. While as a pantser myself, I usually stay focused on one major project at a time. That’s usually all I can handle in my head at a time. That’s not to say I haven’t tried multiple major projects, and successfully. It took a bit of juggling, but consider this.


            To work multiple projects takes time.

            To most of us, especially those of us that work for a living and have families, our writing time is precious. That means when we do get not only the time, but the motivation to write, that time must not be wasted or squandered. Spreading it out through multiple projects can dilute the creativity, despite our heads bursting with ideas.


            While it might’ve seemed like a great idea at first, once you dive into the mechanics of it, is what you’re doing on each story all that different? Are you spreading yourself too thin?

            Maybe, maybe not.


            Once into these multiple projects, do you find yourself rushed to get one or both or all of them dun didded? Do you find yourself trying to get them overwith and rushing some or all of them just so you can say you completed something…anything?

            Does the quality of the work go down just to say you finished?

            Maybe, maybe not.


            If you’re a pantser, in all the rush and initial bursts of ideas, did you somehow lose the original inspiration? Did you forget? Did the idea somehow blend in with the plot or idea from one of the others? Did you just rush (see above) and throw in the kitchen sink to make one work to get it done?


            I always like to end things up with my personal experiences. In 26 years, for the most part, I’ve stuck with one major project at a time. I have, in the past, tried multiple projects at a time and I ended up shelving the one to finish the other. It was just too much to concentrate on at one time. All of the above came into my head as I tried working the multiple projects and I just couldn’t let them happen. As a pantser, I had to stick with one. Then again, those others I started, at least some of them, I went back to and gave them a proper finish so in that way, I worked multiple projects and successfully completed them. I initially worked them together but ended up stopping to work one and finish the rest later. That’s what really happened so I wasn’t spreading myself too thin. That’s what happened with The Greenhouse and Lusitania Gold.

            On the other hand (a cliché phrase I use a lot in Fred’s world), that hasn’t stopped me from tossing in the occasional short story. When I do that, my main project comes to a cold stop for a few days while I whip out the short story.

            Why do I do that?

            Because it’s a short story!

            Usually, I get the idea, ponder what I want to write about, probably while I’m in the middle of writing one of my major projects, then I sit down one day or two, and whip out the story. That means taking an hour or two to write it, then on another day read it to the writer’s group, use their feedback to tweak it, then turn it in to one of the anthologies. Sometimes I just self-edit them and never turn them in.

            Then I go back to the major project.

            There are a few cases, where I’m working on a major project and have resurrected an older MS to edit at the same time. That’s not the same as writing something completely new. The older MS is already written. I just have to tweak it. That’s multitasking but not creating something out of the blue.


            Working on multiple projects is, as usually taken in the context on the forums, writing two or more separate novels at the same time.

            However, multiple projects can be a lot more nuanced than that.

            I personally recommend one major project at a time for most people. It makes life simpler and the quality of the project better.

            Not everyone is built that way, but I guess most are, especially new writers.

            It’s up to you.

            Happy writing!


            This article piggybacks on my article, earlier this year on a trip to San Francisco. This time it was a trip to Disney, the happiest place on earth!

I’ve discussed inspiration a total of 11 times here at Fred Central, and to me, there’s something about this subject that never gets old. It’s important for you, as a creator to always have this tool in your box.


            It’s not just COVID that restricts travel for my family. It’s time and budget. Given that, we don’t get out all that much. When we do, it tends to have an impact.

            Back in the day, traveling meant something different. My job, the Air Force, gave me golden opportunities in the time before continual deployments. When we traveled, it was more or less permanent from one place to another. That’s why we lived in places like Spain and Turkey. When not overseas, we were able to live for several year time spans in different states. However, while overseas, when we took a “weekend trip,” it had an entirely different meaning.

            For the majority of those times, I wasn’t a writer or an author. That doesn’t mean I wasn’t able to catalog a vast “wyberry” of memories and photos from which I could draw inspiration. My memory is just fine.

            Nowadays, travel is not the same. Back then, a short jog almost always ended up in someplace interesting. Here and now, it usually means a long trip of one, two, or three days with hotels to get to someplace different. Plus, with COVID in the mix, we have to be more careful. Even being fully vaxxed and wearing a mask, we have to do our best to avoid crowds when we can. As our recent trip to Disney can attest, that was close to impossible.


            It all depends on your level of inspiration.

            I’ve talked about inspiration multiple times here at Fred Central. What it boils down to is what your imagination threshold is and how you exploit it. If writing is something you have to do and it’s a compulsion, you should be brim full of stories waiting to get out. Everything inspires you. You have way more ideas filling your head than you can write down in a lifetime.

            Does that mean you’ll try and use all of them?

            Not likely.

            Does that mean you’ll use most of them?

            Not likely either.

            What you’ll do is cherry pick some of the best. When it comes down to actual practice, your adventure, wherever it takes you, will end up someplace that’ll probably surprise you. Even going to Disney, a place that I literally know like the back of my hand, despite an always changing landscape, always gives me a new spark.

            Then, you, like me, will end up with a head full of ideas. This trip to wherever is a little more inspiration for something new and different that won’t hurt to add to your extensive library.

            If everything you have in your head is all imagined, getting out and traveling is a great way to see something for yourself. Nothing beats reality instead of books or viewing it on the net. It breaks the cycle of myopic thinking.

            Now, what about those of you just dabbling, where writing isn’t a passion yet, or may never be?

            For you, inspiration is a mandatory requirement for you to write.

            Travel is an excellent way to spur your imagination.

            Maybe it’s time to have a convenient excuse to take the family or yourself out of the house and go to that place you were thinking of seeing for real, instead of just on Memorex. You may be surprised what it’s like in real life.

            A picture may be worth a thousand words, but seeing it for real is worth a million words.


            There are many reasons to travel. For writers, it can be for research or inspiration.

            The key is not to think of it as a mandatory thing for legitimacy for your craft. That’s bull. Get that right out of your head. There’s no law or unspoken rule that says your writing isn’t legitimate unless you travel to the places you use in your books!

            The purpose of travel is to get away from home if you can afford it!

            Then again I have to think back to that old song by the 60’s band The Seeds. It’s called Travel With Your Mind. You can do that by staying at home or going there.

            Never forget that!

            There are some of us that will never be able to afford to travel. Some of us can barely afford to travel to the store, let alone across town. Therefore, the wyberry or TV is our only resource. Use it the best you can. There’s no fault and no shame in doing so.

            Second, while you’re there, whether for real or in your head, as a writer, it can be a place of great inspiration or research for something you are currently or may write in the future. A positive outlook and the desire to tell a good story is all you need. Use it wisely.

            Happy writing!


            This question has come up numerous times in my wanderings across the web, and again lately since I first published this article in 2017. Therefore, a revisit is warranted.

            Are you a writer or an author?

            What’s the definition of each?

            The prevailing opinions have been relatively consistent. Oh, sure, there’s always someone contrary. You have to expect that when you’re talking about hundreds to even thousands of people.


            Writing itself. I’ve stated many times that writing for me is a passion. It’s not a hobby or a job. It’s something I love to do. I’m going to do it whether I’m published or not. I’m going to put it out there either for pay or for free. If I can get paid, so much the better, but one way or tuther, it’s getting out there for the one or two of you to see. Some would consider that self-publishing. Okay, I’ve already done plenty of that unofficially over many years. Never paid a dime for any of it except with my time and effort. Is that still self-publishing? That’s a whole ‘nuther discussion.

            Writing has been a job for me. In that case, I still loved doing it, so it almost wasn’t even work, though by definition, it was employment, and I was getting paid to do it. In my other work, long before I took up writing, I did plenty of writing as part of my job as an Air Force maintenance puke. Once I found my muse, so to speak, I often liked the writing part a lot better than my “real” job!

            In all of that, I considered myself a writer.


            By the generally accepted definition, a writer’s someone who writes. Whether for fun, or work, they write. For purposes of this discussion, we’re talking about stories, whether short, long, fiction or non-fiction, poetry, projects, etc.

            A writer is someone who writes and writes and writes. Their goal may or may not be to get published.

            I’ll tell you right now that if you’re a prolific writer and put in at least a little effort, the chances are, you’ll get at least something published.


            Writing and being good at it doesn’t necessarily go together.

            You remember the old computer term, garbage in/garbage out?

            That can apply to writing as well, if you just write with no regard for honing and improving your craft. If you slap your stuff down on paper (or in the ether), with no regard for cleaning it up or getting feedback—no attempts to improve your work, don’t ever expect to get anywhere with it.

            A small caveat I needed to get out of the way.


            Now, this is the meat of the matter. An author is a writer that gets published. When you see your name in lights, so to speak, you’re now an author.

            That pretty much sums up the difference between a writer and an author.

            A writer writes, while an author is a writer that’s published.

            How many of you are both?

            To get technical, I’ve been an “uncredited” author since the late 90’s when I wrote all those preventive maintenance manuals for the rubber extrusion plant in Frederick, Oklahoma. However, my first piece, credited under my name, was a short story for an anthology by the Highland Writer’s Group in Highland, Indiana in 2002. Now that was my first real credit as a named author.

            Even though I was writing much earlier, I first considered myself as an official writer for what I do now, fiction, since 1995 when I got serious about writing novels. Why? I guess it’s because I found my real muse and realized writing was a passion and not some passing thing. That time was my golden moment when I knew it’d be a lifelong thing for me.

            Here I am, twenty-six years later (as I re-write this), and I’m both a writer and an author. I’m loving every minute of it (well, except the marketing). After all, nothing’s perfect.

            How about you?

            Happy writing!


            Since we’ve been talking about inspiration lately, what with traveling and all, and now this being the holiday season, I thought I’d expand things a bit.

            Do you find the holidays, whatever they are, inspiring?

            For me, I just take them as another day off, or wanting to get them overwith!


            Without getting specific, some people get all into the meanings of each individual holiday. There are many, some which we get off, while if you are in retail, you may not get any off. In fact, if you work retail, holidays may be the worst or the best days of the year for you.

            The meaning of these holidays can be inspiring for various reasons.

A particular holiday may be integral to the plot line of your story.

It can be atmosphere to color your story.

It may not be part of the actual story but the inspiration for something completely different.


            When one thinks of the “holiday season” which we usually refer to as the end of the year from Halloween to Christmas, many stories may be inspired from this both directly and indirectly. Yet, the story itself may have nothing to do with the holidays. It may not even take place during that time of year.


            When the holiday directly inspires a story, there are plenty of examples. I don’t even have to name them as there are so many titled movies, for example.

            I just did a short story for a holiday themed anthology that was published in late October.


            I’ve brought this up before but it’s worth a mention. Using holidays in made up worlds to color those worlds, such as in world building is a good way to make these worlds more realistic. However, has any holiday directly inspired you if you write this type of genre?

            Personally, no holiday has ever inspired me in either my science fiction or fantasy novels.

            That’s just me.

            Has one of the holidays inspired you in one of your made up worlds?


            As writers and authors, we draw inspiration from wherever we can get it. This can include holidays. Never look a gift horse in the mouth. If it works for you, use it!

            Personally, it hasn’t worked for me yet, but while right now, I have a different view of the holidays from a lot of people, that doesn’t mean that one day, it might not happen for me.

            For some of you, the holidays, whatever they might be (even the obscure ones) might be the perfect inspiration for your next great novel.

            Never forget the big picture. While plots do come out of thin air, something gives you that spark. Never ignore it. Even I won’t ignore a good holiday if it nudges me the right way.


            Inspiration can come from anyplace. All it takes is your imagination.

            Use it wisely.

            Happy writing!


            The original article came out in early 2013 and was titled “Does Your Title Have Anything To Do With Your Book?” The second version came out in 2019 and was simply called “Titles.”

            As long as Fred Central has been around, it was inevitable that this subject come around again. Now here it is, the third time.


            As much as I read, write and observe, I’ve about seen it all, and since then, more and more examples have popped up.


            The original article was a sequel to a previous article. I’d talked about how not to punish your reader with words. To be exact, make your prose succinct and to the point. Don’t drone on and on. In that same vein, how about making the title somehow correspond to the subject matter?

            That thought still applies today, almost nine years later.

            The inspiration for the original title article came from an Amazon review I did of the book that inspired that previous article. Though the title played some part in the book, that was hardly the focus of events. I had to stretch to tie it in. My guess was that the author had to slap some title onto his lecture, because that’s ultimately what this tome turned out to be, a lecture on British occupation of the Sudan with a quest for treasure thrown in. Thinking back on it now, I avoid this author like the plague. I’d just as soon read a college textbook than his subsequent titles. While classified as fiction, they were quite a drudge to get through. To this day, all these years later, he still puts out an occasional book, so he has his fans. Good for him.

            To me, the title came off as a poor choice. It was an underlying theme, I guess, a common thread, but the majority of the story was about something else entirely. I could’ve thought of a hundred different titles, (some of them not so complimentary), but let’s not get off the track.

            Also, since then, and more to the point here, I’ve run across multiple examples of a title that had nothing at all to do with the story. If it did, I could not recall it…at all.


            When I title my stories, I like to make sure the title has something to do with the actual story, something significant to do with the story, not just a minor thread to tie it all together. I suppose, given the original example and using the authors logic, the title DID tie it all together, but maybe it was because I wasn’t really happy with so much of the book that the title didn’t ring true.

            That still brings up my point about being careful to title your story. There have been plenty of cases of titles that didn’t fit (some glaringly so).

            What’s the purpose of the title anyway? It’s a form of recognition, a way for people to identify with what you wrote, a marketing tool. At the same time, that title should have something to do with what’s between the pages and not just a minor part, but a significant part. In the case of the book that inspired the original article, the beginning mentioned it, with an occasional reference here and there, and the very end in the author’s notes, which mind you, were just as droning and endless as the narrative! I guess that’s better than some others I’ve run across, but still a poor choice, in my opinion because the actual subject matter had nothing to do with that title.

            Now, sometimes the title is a pun, a cutesy play on words, a metaphor. What’s wrong with that?

            Part of the reason for a title is to have some significant connection with what the story is about. At least it should. It’s just like the back cover blurb. There’s another sore spot for me. Truth in advertising. The back blurb is designed to draw the reader in. However, it shouldn’t be there to drag in a reader under false pretenses. The blurb should describe something that’s actually in the book. It should not just be “click bait.”


            Regardless to content or writing quality, when it comes to misleading titles, that just adds insult to injury. Then again, back in the seventies, I remember plenty of the goofy psychedelic-era tomes with nonsensical titles that didn’t have a thing to do with the content. They’re out there, and some of them are probably considered classics.

            The title is extremely important. It sets the whole premise for the book. If the title is called Horse and the book is about bank robbers who use VW Beetles and a horse is only mentioned once as a side comment somewhere in the middle, that’s a crummy title. If the book is called All The Boatmen yet the book is about a lumber mill, and the only reference to boats are two lovers in the story going on a canoe trip one weekend, that’s a misleading title.

            Those two examples I completely made up, so don’t think I took them from real examples. If they happen to be real books, that’s pure coincidence. If so, that really makes my point!

            I’ve seen more real examples but don’t want to disparage any authors directly, so I won’t go there. There are plenty of books titled after some off-hand comment, some zinger of a line that’s uttered by a character that has nothing to do with the rest of the story. Some of them are classics, many are not.


            If it’s a catchy, nonsensical title, and the story’s great, it still might just work. There are examples out there with that wonky title attached to a great story. It does happen. Nothing in this world is absolute. If a catchy title draws in readers, regardless if it’s relevant to the story, more power to you. However, I still go back to the truth in advertising thing. Most people like to know what they’re getting up front. Honesty works better most of the time.

            Please do your readers justice and give them an accurate title!

            After a few recent experiences, I thought this was worth repeating.

            Happy writing.


            I’ve covered this subject countless times via prologues and flashbacks. It’s nothing new.

            So, why bring it up again?

            Not only does the question keep coming up on the forums, but it did most recently in my personal life, and no, it wasn’t me specifically. Let’s get that off the table right away.

            That brings up my main point.

            The original title was “Just start the damn story where it begins.”

            To be less blunt, I edited it down to “Just start the story where it begins.”


            As I have pointed out numerous times, and continue to do so, a popular plot device used in movies and TV is the flashback. They’ll start with the present day, then do a flashback to “six days ago” or “six months ago” or something.

            In a book the story might start with the much maligned “Prologue.” It may have a subtitle with a date or a “six days ago” or some such thing. Or…the author may use flashbacks to fill in the blanks.

            What this does is jerk the audience around. It disturbs the continuity of the story.

            While this seems to be a popular trend for a crowd that gets bored easily, or so everyone thinks, what about just telling the story in a linear fashion?


            Here’s a novel (ha ha) idea.

            How about telling the story as it happened?

            How about telling the story from A to Z?

            How about depicting events without jerking the reader around, like starting with Chapter 1 and ending with Chapter Whatever?


            The plot background, in other words, the story, is not the same as character background.

            Let’s make this clear.

            So in so is solving a murder mystery. They’re after the killer who murdered the butler. Why they’re acting the way they are toward the suspects or the way they investigate isn’t necessarily part of this, unless it’s actually the plot and the murder is secondary.

            In that case, maybe the story should start with how the character got to this point before the murder occurred. How about that?

            Keep it linear. Then you’re not jerking the reader around.

            If it’s part of a series, same thing. If the reader is familiar with the character, past character development should’ve already explained this stuff or if not, start there with this part of the story before delving into the murder part of the plot.

            Now, back to character background as color for the story.

            As part of the normal goings on, there’s nothing wrong with throwing in bits and pieces of background, which is a normal part of the narrative. However, bringing the plot to a screeching halt for scenes and chapters, especially long ones to flash back to the past throws continuity out the window. A paragraph or two sprinkled into the narrative doesn’t do this, or dialogue between the MC and another character as well. This can all be leaked out effectively without destroying the timeline.


            While it’s no hard-set rule, the fact is that the more linear the story, the easier the read. For some individuals, this may scream boredom, but for most, it spells more enjoyment. Among other things, it means there are more chances the writing will not get in the way of the story. Before you know it, you’ve finished the book, hopefully with a smile on your face. That’s the goal of every author.

            Jerking the reader around may work for some, but for many, a linear story gets to the point better and faster.


            I repeat my well-used mantra: nothing here is a hard-set rule. You, as a writer and/or author, can do what you want. You may be bristling with ideas and want to get them out, in the easiest and most unimpeded fashion possible. This may be without rules or any restrictions. Go for it.

            What you may end up with is a huge mess, a hit, a no-seller, pure torture to read, or a pure pleasure to read.

            It’s up to you.

            Happy writing!


             This is something I’ve alluded to countless times here at Fred Central. If you didn’t already know, I’ll go through it again. First, let me bring up the question.

            Should you go out and buy books on writing?

            There are countless books on writing out there.

            The two most popular that I can think of are Writing The Breakout Novel by Donald Maass and of course, On Writing by Stephen King.

            There are countless others.

            Some will swear by either.

            Don’t forget the basics either, the reference books like Chicago Manual Of Style.

            All of these are the biggies.

            Let’s also not forget the various web sources like here at Fred Central (of course) and the outstanding sites from Richie Billing and others.

            All of us do our best to dole out writing advice.


            If you’re an avid reader, especially if you read more than just fiction, will you, in all practicality, make use of any of these tomes (or web sites)?

            Will any of this advice sink in?

            That’s the question of the day.

            Everyone has a different method of learning. Be it visual, reading, oral, or task-oriented, just like when you get a questionnaire from the doctor or when you get admitted to the hospital. They’ll ask you your best learning method (along with language). The same goes for these books.

            Just because you’re a writer and maybe already an author doesn’t mean reading and studying books on the subject is the best way to learn how to hone your craft.

            Maybe it is, to a point.

            An entire books-worth?


            The reality is that most of us are deep into writing well-before we have even heard about these books. Then, if we ever pick one up, do we read the entire tome, or just cherry pick what we want? Then, is the book organized so that we can cherry pick?


            Is it a rambling tome with the writer’s thoughts jotted down in a disorganized manner?

            Say it’s organized.

            So what?

            How do you know where you need to look?

            How do you know where your problem is?

            Is the book organized in such a way as to clearly explain to you what issues you may have? Does the book clearly explain what you need to do to write that next blockbuster? Does it satisfactorily give you what you need? Does that web site allow you to cherry pick the info you want?

            For most writers, these books, and a lot more end up being supplements to their learning and writing process. None of them are the panacea they need to write their big blockbuster, or even maybe their first anything. They need a lot more. Therefore they (well most of us) end up with a shelf full of books.


            Through my decades at this passion, I once ended up with a shelf full of books on writing.

            You know what?

            I barely cracked open any of them except to smell the pages, glance at a few bits of text, and shelve them.

            Yup, that’s right.

            I never finished more than a single paragraph of any of them, except one.

            The only one I ever kept and used to any extent was the Chicago Manual of Style. I still use it. The rest I donated to the Henderson Writer’s Group.

            So, how did I learn, and continue to learn?


            Okay, not the last part, but I learned by old school hockey. I typed until my fingers bled, hiked to the computer through the snow and tundra, uphill both ways, through the desert (okay it doesn’t make sense but go with it), and you know, hard knocks.

            I took one class on college writing for term papers in the Community College Of The Air Force (CCAF) back in 1985 or so. One of my old supervisors taught me the fascist method of writing, which I won’t go into here. Too long of a story.

            To make a long story short, I learned by trial and error and with some outstanding mentors and great (and one bad) writer’s groups. I learned by writing, and writing, and writing. The thing is that I never did it as a hobby. It was a passion, and I spent many hours doing it.

            While I may have veered here and there, I also kept focused enough and read enough, and worked by example enough that I didn’t stray too far off the beaten path. I studied what I read and worked by example. I mean the stuff I read for pleasure had a great influence on what I wrote for pleasure. The tenses, the point of view, the story flow all had an influence on how I wrote, and still write.

            So, when I see others write about how to do it in books, it’s rehashing the stuff I learned on my own by observation and trial and error.

            Therefore, sampling and smelling, and shelving those books was going to happen for me.

            Should that be what you do?

            It all depends on how you learn, how serious you are about this passion (or hobby), and what your goals are.


            If your goal is to gather a library full of books on writing, go for it. If you actually use any of them, so much the better.

            If you’re looking for shortcuts, well…not sure if books on writing will help or not. I guess that all depends on how you learn.

            If you’re like me, I prefer learning by doing, observing, by example, and by reading others work. Sure, it takes longer, but then again, does it really? I was a reader long before I was a writer. Weren’t most of us? Plus, who says you can’t do both simultaneously?

            There are many paths to your goal. Use them wisely.

            Happy writing!


             A common question that comes up on the forums on Facebook is how often do you write, what are your writing habits, bla bla bla.

            As a writer, especially one that is somewhat proficient, we all have a pattern we usually go by that gives us results.

            When someone new to this asks, probably because they’re floundering, or are just curious to compare their output to the average, it’s something that may or may not be good to know.


            Keep in mind that we’re all individuals, and success doesn’t sit with a single formula.

            Over the decades, I’ve heard it said many times that the only way to get anywhere is to sit down and write. While that’s true, the how of that may vary greatly between individuals.

            The most widespread piece of advice out there is “write every day.”


            Do you do this?

            What does that mean?

            Many assume it means to write on your major story or manuscript every day.

            For others, it means any and everything.

            For me, it means that I do what I do. I DO write every day. It’s just not necessarily on my current WIP, or Work In Progress.

            Then again, everything I write is a work in progress.

            Therefore, let’s just say the WIP is my current NOVEL in progress.

            However, just because I may not work on my WIP every day, that doesn’t mean I’m not writing every day, or to be more succinct, honing my chops. Or, to be even more direct, doing what I love to do which is write.


            What does honing my chops consist of?

            E-mails, reviews, short stories, or whatever I feel like writing about. It MAY be working on my WIP it may not.


            I have a feeling that the intentions of many of the people inquiring on the forums are specifically talking about their WIPs, and not even considering their peripheral writing. To them, they don’t consider anything else as either practice, or productive writing. It’s all throwaway. The only thing that counts is their WIP, which is their bread and butter.

            I’m assuming a lot and could be wrong, but after all, they’re trying to write and complete the next great novel, and that’s why they’re asking the question in the first place.

            They may just be starting out and are floundering.

            They may have reached an impasse and need a prompt to continue.



            I’ll be the first to admit that lately, my writing has been coming in fits and starts. I had not long ago resurrected the very first novel I ever wrote and decided to edit it. Why? It wasn’t as bad as I first thought. I’m about halfway through it now.

            My publisher wanted the third book in my Gold series, so I stopped editing that first MS and concentrated on this one to get it ready to turn in.

            I was already in the first third of working on book number four of my fantasy series. However, the publisher decided to go with the Gold series for the time being so I set that one aside. I already have A (of course) down and know B, so when I get back to it, no problem.

            In the meantime, I came up with a new idea for an icky bug that I just couldn’t let go. After I got book number three of the Gold series turned it, I pondered this new icky bug for about a month before I ever started writing it. I had to work the logic along with a solid A and B in my head.

            I finally wrote the first chapter, let it sit for a couple of weeks, then started in earnest as I did double duty burning vinyl albums to my computer so I can then burn them to CDs. Since I have to monitor the recording, I need to sit at the computer so might as well keep productively occupied.

            So far, I’ve done three sessions on three weekends.

            Fits and starts.

            This isn’t my normal writing method.

            Why am I doing this?


            I’d never recommend what I’m doing to a new writer. For me, it’s okay because I know what I’m doing and while going against all the advice I usually give to a new writer, I’m doing it my way because I have plenty in the pipeline to cover for me for a long time.

            I can afford to take my time.

            As a new writer with NO books under your belt, you should not do this because you’ll never get anything done!

            I know I’ll get it dun didded because I have the time, the creativity, the passion, and the motivation. My circumstances are just different at the moment.

            I have a lot on my plate with life and I don’t have the pressure or the burning desire to get that first novel published. I can afford to take my time.

            You, as a new writer, don’t have that same luxury, unless you just don’t care.

            If you just write for the love of it, for the passion, then press on and write in fits and starts. Maybe some day you’ll actually finish something.

            Of the three projects I’m working on at the moment, the first one is already done, just not fully edited. The second, the fourth book in the series, is a third done, just on the back burner with the third book is done and waiting to be picked up. The third project, is turned in and waiting on the publisher. The fourth, is fresh and my current WIP. I’m taking my time with it because what I didn’t say before is that I’ve already turned in another icky bug and am waiting to hear on it, plus I have a second completed one waiting in the wings. I have no reason to rush it.

            I can afford to work in fits and starts.


            I don’t recommend working in fits and starts unless your circumstances warrant it. If you have a stock of completed MSs lying around, like I do, well, that’s different.

            However…and this is a big however, if you’re writing your first novel, a more steady workflow is highly recommended or you may never get it done, not to mention continuity errors.

            I don’t have an issue with continuity, and it’s never been a problem because I write so linear. That may not be your case.

            Happy writing!


            This isn’t a repeat of the article I published in November. This is about something else.

            Has it ever occurred to you when plotting or coming up with ideas, given that you’ve written multiple stories or novels, that stuff starts to feel or sound the same?

            This is what I mean by part II or 2 of déjà vu.


            One of the grand poohbahs of writing once said there are only so many plots. As a writer, you mix them up to make them seem unique. As readers (or watchers if a movie or TV), we tolerate a lot because of the voice of the writer.

            That’s what it’s really about. It’s the trappings surrounding the plot, not the plot itself.

            As I’ve said before (here’s déjà vu for you), there are infinite ways to tell or show the story of how the butler did it. It can still be a great story. It all depends on the voice and the trappings that go along with it. The twists and the turns, so on and so forth.


            Your hero gets into a bar brawl to pick up a major clue.

            Where have I seen that before?

            In book number three, five, seven, eight…

            Is this a pattern? A fallaback?

            Déjà vu?


            While there are infinite possibilities when writing and creating, there are also rabbit holes we can fall back into without even realizing it. There are also old standbys that work just fine. The only real rule is to keep mixing them up so as not to become boring.

            When your readers complain that you’re too predictable, then you may have a problem.

            When your beta readers notice a trend, you may have a problem.

            When you notice a trend, you may have a problem.


            One way of putting it is that when writing, déjà vu becomes cliché which becomes a crutch. Then the readers may become bored.

            The issue with that is how broad you want to define what a crutch is.

            The difference between all of it can get blurred when we come to style.

            Nobody that’s a fan of Clive Cussler, for instance, can mistake his style. When you read one of his books, you know what’s going to happen. Is that déjà vu? Is that a cliché? Is that a crutch?

            See? You can take things too far.

            It goes right in the category of fixing something that isn’t broke. Clive found his magic and stuck with it, even when branching out into different series. The style stayed the same.

            Some would call that a crutch, déjà vu, cliché.

            Others would rely on him for writing a great adventure, always knowing what they’re going to get.

            The same could be said for Agatha Christie, or David Baldacci, or Lee Child.


            When you come across déjà vu in your writing, does it have to do with a plot element, a situation, or your style?

            Something to think about.

            Happy writing!


            This is a question that comes up quite often on the forums, though to tell the truth, I haven’t seen it lately. In fact, this inspiration just popped into my head as I sat down to think of something to write this Sunday morning.

            I know I’ve touched on it before in other articles. After all, I have 580 to choose from since I started Fred Central.

            To do this, I need to take it back to the beginning.


            Back when I first got interested in books, most of you weren’t even alive. My mom used to read me big fat baby books, the likes of my favorite at the time Willy Woo oo ooo The Fire Truck, if I remember the title correctly. It turned into many more including (which I’ve outline before), my grandpa showing me Encyclopedia Britannica and of course, that infamous photo of the Lusitania Sinking.

            I’ve always had a fascination with printed matter.


            Reading has never not been part of my life.

            It wasn’t always pleasant, as early school can attest, though it wasn’t that I couldn’t learn, or didn’t, but my report cards weren’t always the best. Part of that was thanks to my vivid imagination (which would come in handy many decades later).

            The thing is that back then, while I never had anything against reading, which I did as much out of necessity as anything else, what turned me off then was as often the tiny font rather than content.

            Yup, that’s right, the size of the font had a big influence on what I’d read for pleasure.

            Therefore, kid books, with the bigger fonts usually got my attention.

            Next came open space on the pages.

            The more solid the pages, the less I wanted to read it.

            Lazy? Or just that I didn’t like busy pages?

            I gravitated toward the more adolescent books which fit right with my age group at the time.


            One huge boost in my reading interest came when we were living in Lompoc, California. We had been living in a trailer and my parents finally got tired of that and moved into a real house. The people who owned it and rented it to us had two older kids who left us a bunch of toys and stuff they no longer wanted. For the boy in the family, I got a treasure trove of stuff including a bunch of kids books, a little older than my age at the time, but it gave me a huge boost for reading. This set of books were the original 1930’s editions of The Hardy Boys.

            While the font wasn’t quite as big as I would’ve wanted, I adapted and once I started with book #1, The Tower Treasure, I was hooked!

            Soon, I had exhausted the entire library of books I’d inherited from the kid. Then, they became an occasional buy when my parents would let me, or a Christmas gift until I had the entire series up to that point.

            Along the way, I also got into Tom Swift, Nancy Drew, The Bobsey Twins, and Danny Dunn series.

            I always loved series the best because it brought back characters I liked to see again.

            There were a few one-off books I also got into, like Life On The Mississippi, which was a very hard read for me because of the font and the writing style. I also wasn’t all that hot on either Tom Sawyer nor Huck Finn for some reason.

            I was, of course, forced to read the “classics” at school.

            I hated them. Not only were they boring, but the obscure language and writing styles turned me off. I was being force fed these tomes, told this and that, and had to write about it. That didn’t sit well with me.

            At this time, my writing consisted of the occasional letter to a friend or relative, or whatever I had to write at school. Like most others of my age, I was not a big fan of writing, though I did it, sometimes with great angst. It was also all with a pen or pencil. No typing.


            Toward the end of high school, my best friend started hanging out with this book collector who was a slightly older guy that lived on the west side of Palmdale. That was, of course, not his main interest in this guy, but I won’t go into that except it was of a party nature. Anyway, this guy got me into books and his fascination with science fiction. He had quite an extensive collection of Edgar Rice Burroughs books. By this time, a bit older, I was able to tolerate the tinier font of a paperback, and at least Burroughs got to the point. I could enjoy his Mars and Tarzan novels.

            I started a modest collection.

            In the meantime, after I graduated, I got my first taste of fantasy as I worked nights at a golf course, running sprinklers. Between runs, I sat in the maintenance shed with my feet off the ground (to avoid scorpions), and slogged through Lord Of The Rings.

            I somehow got through all three volumes, but they left me kind of flat. At that time, not being a writer myself, I had no idea what was wrong with them. I know now what the problem is. Besides the rambling is the omniscient point of view. That lesson would come back to me decades later.


            When I first joined, I wasn’t reading as much as when I first arrived in Spain in the early 70’s. Then, living single in the barracks, I was into two main things. Music/electronics and reading. I haunted the Stars and Stripes bookstore.

            It was there I got into a lot more science fiction and again, a bit of fantasy, though much less wordy stuff by Andre Norton and the like.

            I also got my first taste of some great detective and thriller and spy novels like Matt Helm and Doc Savage.

            I also read one significant book that would stick with me for a long time. I can’t remember a thing about the story, but the book was called The Metal Monster. It was science fiction. The only reason I really remember the book is because in downtown Madrid, there was a high-rise that had a big sign on it that said “METAL MAZDA” on it. Every time we went to Madrid, I’d spot that sign on the building in the distance and think of that obscure book. To this day, I still can’t recall anything about that story, but I still remember the title!

            This was when my first inspirations to write came into play.

            So, what happened?

            I had a Royal manual typewriter and in a huge but misguided inspiration, I attempted to start a Star Trek satire. I got three quarters of a page and gave up.

            I realized this crap is hard!

            I shelved it and never tried again for a long time.


            In our last year at Torrejon in Spain, Desert Storm took place.

            In a hangar two down from where I worked, they set up a deployment depot for the troops going to the bad place. My family used to volunteer to help out, doling out coffee and donuts and whatever.

            I’d go down and visit them at lunch time.

            They had an extensive exchange library of paperbacks.

            That’s where I found Raise The Titanic by Clive Cussler and a very early book by Bentley Little.

            Those two books were not only great reads, but they inspired me to think about writing again. I had just completed a writing course for my associates degree, plus a few years earlier, I had learned the Nazi way of writing from my former boss. By this time, some six years since, I’d become to go-to guy in the shop for writing stuff. Plus, my wife and I had a monthly newsletter we did for a group we were in.


            We came back stateside and were living in Oklahoma at my last assignment. I realized we were never going to do much else with our band, which we kept reforming every time we moved from base to base. I needed a creative outlet.

            Along this time, which was mid 90’s now, I’d been haunting the local Hastings bookstore in downtown Altus, Oklahoma. There I discovered Dean Koontz, but in particular, two authors who were a huge inspiration. Elizabeth Forrest (Rhondi Vilott Salsitz), and my mentor and friend, Carol Davis Luce. Their books blew me away. It was then, early 1995, that I sat down at the keyboard, and took up writing and it became a passion.


            Books/authors that inspired me to write are many.

            Hardy Boys

            Nancy Drew

            Edgar Rice Burroughs

            Danny Dunn

            Doc Savage

            Clive Cussler

            Bentley Little

            Carol Davis Luce

            Elizabeth Forrest

            Ron Goulart

            Andre Norton

            Just to name a few. Notice that I mentioned not only authors, but book series.

            The reason is that it was not just specific books, but the authors and most of what they wrote (and some were contracted out under a pen name). No one specific book did it for me as much as everything.

            Did I pick up writing because I thought I could do better than they were doing?

            Ah, duh! No way!

            I just wanted to write, tell my stories and put them out there for others to enjoy one day in the best way within my means.

            Simple as that.

            Happy writing!


            I’ve thought a lot of how chapters and scenes are constructed, especially lately given the wide range of books I’ve been reading. Some chapters/scenes have been short and to the point, while others have been fifty pages long. Some were, to me, poorly constructed, but to tell the truth, that was the least of my issues, yet it compounded them. This particular version of the article came out in 2014. I thought it was worth a revisit seeing as how I just finished a book that was a mix of both the good and the bad.

            Back in 2011, I first touched on this subject but have gained more perspective, experience and insight. I thought I’d revisit it in 2014 in more detail, and now here I am again in 2022. This very important topic is something all writers should have as a top priority. I’ll of course, tweak it as needed.


            What is the purpose of a story?

            To convey information.

            Technically put, this is your goal in a nutshell. You, the writer, are trying to convey information to your reader. If it’s a fictional piece, the whole idea is to convey pleasurable information. Which emotion that involves is entirely up to you, but unless the story is one of those fifty-word shorts (or something like that), it’s going to be long enough to require some sort of structure beyond the basics all stories require: A beginning, a middle and an end.

            To get from point A to point B, there has to be structure, a pattern that makes it easier for the reader to digest. Therefore, to simplify your story, to organize it and make it more palatable for your readers, you go beyond the basic sentences and paragraphs to organize it into chapters and scenes.


            The most extreme example I can think of is a book I heard about when I was living in Spain. A Spanish author wrote a two-hundred-plus page book, and it was one sentence! The only punctuation was a single period at the very end. That had to be one seriously tedious story. I’m pretty sure it wasn’t a best seller, even in Spain.

            As an avid reader, I’ve seen all varieties of structure. Some authors don’t use chapters at all. Their stories are all scenes. Then there are those like James Patterson, who makes every scene a chapter. Lately, I tend toward this approach. Then there are those that use a timeline instead of chapters, or they have parts with independent chapters within these parts instead of consecutive chapters starting with one at the beginning of the book and so on.

            It doesn’t matter which form you take because it still boils down to organization.


            Chapters and scenes organize your story into logical, palatable bite-sized chunks, something the reader can grab onto. This is the same as TV scenes between commercial breaks. The movies do it also, except instead of commercials, they break to a different part of the story, to take a breather, or reveal something. Well…that’s not always the case, especially with some thrillers and blockbusters, but you get the point.

            Organization. Small sections lay out your story so that the reader can help put things together in their mind as they follow along. They can watch it develop as you tell it.


            Is there really a difference between chapters and scenes? To many authors, not much.

            One way to look at it is that a chapter is more of the big picture, where scenes are little chunks within the chapter. What does that mean?

            A chapter is a major clause, section, or part of the story. It’s a chunk of action that takes place. A scene is the same thing but on a smaller scale. Because of this rather vague and arbitrary definition, there are no set rules, and many different methods authors use to organize their stories.


            Not too long ago, the standard was that books were organized into chapters and each chapter should have no more than three or four scenes. More than that was considered taboo and excessive. Bad voodoo.

            I happen to agree with that if you choose to use standard chapters. More than three or four scenes per, fragments the chapters and becomes annoying. That isn’t to say published authors don’t break that rule and get away with it, but to me, it makes for a disorganized story and takes away from the impact.


            Whether it’s a chapter or a scene, they should be written the same. They both follow a basic structure similar to the big picture of your overall story. They should have a beginning, a middle and an end. The only thing missing will be the plot resolution.


            You should treat each scene and chapter like a short story because that’s what they are. Each chapter and/or scene is a co-dependent short story that when assembled, coalesces to create the completed whole novel (or short bigger story).

            Each one of these intricate parts completes the whole.

            Every scene or chapter must be treated the same. The structure should be as follows, regardless of length:

  1. BEGINNING: Some kind of introduction to set the scene, to let the reader know what, where, why, when and how. It could be a paragraph, a sentence, or even a single word.
  2. MIDDLE: The meat of the matter. This is where you do what you have to do. Get out the information, whatever it is.
  3. END: This can be the most critical part. The end is not only to finish up the chapter or scene, this is also where you sell your reader, where you compel them to go on to the next scene, where you entice them to want to continue reading. There’s nothing worse than to end the section leaving them flat. If they have no reason to move on, why bother? You’ve just lost your reader. The only scene that won’t compel them to want to read more will be the end. Even then, if you do a really good job, they’ll either want a sequel or can’t wait for your next book to come out.


            One of the most critical things about any chapter or scene, which I’ve preached in many of my other articles, is that any chapter or scene has to be relevant! It has to move the plot along and not be extraneous material. There’s nothing that brings a plot to a screeching halt faster than fluff.


            Whether you choose to use chapters and no scenes like I do often (depending on the genre), use nothing but scenes, or something in-between, remember the key is that each bite-sized chunk of your short story, novel or novelette must be a short story within. Each little bit must have a beginning, middle and an end. If you have those key elements and pay special attention to each ending, your readers will stay with you right until the end.

            Happy writing!


            I just had another book signing. This time with a group of people at the Clark County Library in Las Vegas, Nevada. While it was a lot of fun, it wasn’t fruitful. Nothing new. It inspired me to go back to this article from 2016 where I talked about an individual book signing. Quite a bit of difference! I’ll tweak and add as needed.


            And then, it happened!

            Okay, I copped that infamous line from at least a dozen, if not more episodes of Sea Hunt. It was worth it.

            It happened, alright. It surely happened (and don’t call me Shirley). If I need to tell you where I copped that line, well you aren’t no movie buff!

            Anyway, I had my first solo book signing and at the risk of repeating myself, it was well worth it!


            My solo event was organized by Barnes & Noble. The idea was to get as many people as possible to show up. The store pre-ordered a certain number of books, on the condition that my publisher accepts returns. That’s the big condition of a major retailer doing a book signing. Either you have to supply them the books, so they can sell them through their cash register at the retail price, which they don’t like to do because it isn’t in their system (more on that in a moment), or they order them from their supplier who accepts returns.

            It’s not that retailers are so much against self-published books. However, when you self-publish, you have no distribution system. A large retailer deals with stock systems and distribution. This means inventory and returns etc. When you try to bring them something outside the system, it plays havoc with their books. In that regard, they simply don’t like to deal with it.

            In my case, since I did NOT self-publish, my book’s available through Ingram and Baker & Taylor distribution systems. Not only that, but it’s available through Barnes & Noble. The only issue was that I’m with a small press, and not the big six. More on that in a moment. At first, there was a glitch, and it was cataloged wrong, but that was straightened out. When I got that cleared, the very nice lady in charge of things said yes to the book signing.

            The difference between a small publisher and a large one is distribution. Because my publisher is not one of the “big six”, my book isn’t distributed to all the stores across the country. In that case, this local store ordered that set quantity for the book signing, on the guarantee the publisher would accept the returns. With that taken care of, it was a matter of pre-publicity.

            Though Barnes & Noble posted the event on their web site, it was up to me to do my own marketing as well. I learned a few things.

            First off, social media was by far, the best way to get the word out under these circumstances. I used Facebook and Twitter, even though 99.9% of my followers don’t even live in Las Vegas.

            On the other hand, I had some mailers and flyers printed. As for the flyers, I deliberately had them printed 5X7 because I figured the larger they are, the more likely someone would take them down from a bulletin board. The smaller size was more likely to stay up longer, even if they were smaller and drew less attention. (Note: For this current 2022 library event, my only publicity was through Facebook like most everyone else that had social media.)

            One little problem.

            Have you noticed that almost nobody has bulletin boards anymore? I found that out the hard way! I went all over the place and found almost NO bulletin boards! When I did, I usually got “It can’t be for any money making event.” Say what???

            Shot down in flames. I had a pack full of useless flyers and mailers. Oh yeah, about the mailers, I ended up just giving them to people that I either see all the time, or are already Facebook friends.

            Lesson learned.


            The day of the event was tight. Since it was a Saturday, I unfortunately, usually have something going on with my astronomy club as well, and quite often miss my other writer’s group member’s book signings. I couldn’t very well miss my own! Right after this event, I had to rush home, pack my telescope and head to the north end of town for a public viewing session.

            I arrived at the store and they already had a table set up for me to the right of the main door, with my books displayed and a sign with a photo of my book. They also had a display screen with my book and name as you walk through that door above their Kindle display.

            I brought my fold-out banner, my bookmarks and business cards. I also brought a note pad to write down complicated names for signings. I always do that in case someone has an unusual spelling of their name so I get it right, or if someone speaks softly or in a tone I can’t hear very well.

            Finally, a key component, to attract extra attention and for a conversation starter, I added a candy bowl.

            The store ordered fifteen books.


            The event went very well. The key to a book signing, now this is important, is to NOT sit at your chair (which they supplied) and just stare forward. Remember, you’re there to sell books, not wait for people to come and discover you!

            Some people avoided eye contact. I still said hi. Sometimes they responded, sometimes not. There are certain people you just know not to mess with. Some people are just shy and if you say hi and start talking to them, they respond. With some people, if you say something, you can start a conversation.

            Don’t be afraid to be rejected. Most will, but once in a while, someone will spark an interest.

            The candy bowl was a great conversation starter. Sometimes it was just an avenue for kids. Sometimes adults with a sweet tooth. It made people hesitate.

            I said hi to a lot of people. I found a lot of people didn’t read fantasy, but a few did as well. I explained the book to many. Some showed interest. Quite a few took my business cards and bookmarks, both which have the book title, ISBN and/or my web site.


            As a result of my publicity, four people I know stopped by. Three bought a copy of the book. One stranger bought a copy as well. I went with no expectations. My goal was to sell at least one, so I outdid my expectations and then some!

            That may not sound like much to some of you. However, consider how many book signings virtual unknown authors or even some very well-known authors go to where they don’t sell ANY books!

            I think I did pretty well.

            Oh…and I also got a maybe from one person who had to leave and catch a ride. We’ll see about that one.

            In the end, the store asked me to autograph six copies of the book. They put “autographed by author” stickers on them and set all of the remaining books on a table by the door for a few days before transferring them to the local author wall in the back of the store.

            I’ve been posting that on Facebook to let everyone know. Maybe some of those will eventually sell as well.

            Folks, this is the life of a new author. Unless you’re up there on the New York Times Best Seller List, get used to it. You’ll be doing the same things.


            My current signing was almost none of that. I had a table to share with another author just inside and to the left of the door. No banners (no room) and no standing in front of the table (no point). We had a sparse crowd, which was no big news. At these events, most usually sell only a couple of copies at best. A few maybe more, depending on the genre and who shows. Neither me nor my partner at the table sold a thing. She wrote erotica and some supernatural and also had a lot of swag stuff, which is great if you can go that route. Most of the people I knew did not sell a thing either, though a few sold one copy.

            Still, it was worth it just to get out in public, a rare thing still with the current pandemic. I got to see old friends, have some interesting conversations with strangers who stopped by to check me out, and gave away a few cards, bookmarks and candy. Oh, and I didn’t have a telescope event planned for the evening! It was something else.

            You take what you can get.

            I didn’t sell anything, but I still consider it a victory for just getting out into the world.

            Happy writing!


                   Picking, or selecting what to write about should be a given, if you’re a passionate writer, or consider writing a passion. However, not everyone is in that same head space. I’ve seen it time and time again on the forums where someone would ask for ideas of what to write about.

            How many of us came into this passion/interest/hobby already bursting with ideas?

            How many of us just wanted to write, but had no idea what to write?

            Turns out it’s a mixed bag.


            Someone grew up with an ability (talent), or an interest in writing.

            Why not take that skill or talent to the next step?

            The thing is that while your imagination worked great for term papers or the occasional one-off short story, when it comes to the big Kahuna, a novel, this person doesn’t have a clue.

            Interests may be diverse. Therefore this person signs up for multiple forums on social media (a big assumption but adapted to today’s world) and tries to mine other writers for ideas.

            The reactions with be mixed. A few may toss out ideas while others will not, with the logic being that this person should come up with their own ideas or why do this at all?

            There’s the predicament. This person wants to write but has no or little creativity.


            Getting into this deal for the right reasons, one writer may be chock full of ideas. The issue here is what to go for. If the person is (to use a well-worn and probably politically incorrect phrase) scatterbrained, they may have too many ideas and can’t choose between them. They go nuts (figuratively) trying to decide which of them to go for and end up stalled and getting nowhere.

            Sound familiar?

            Therefore, this person gets online (once again, playing to the norms of today) and starts asking around or giving lists of what people think they should write about.


            When it comes to a novel-sized project, it takes a certain commitment. That takes away substantial time from all the other projects in one’s head bursting to get out.

            For most of us, when we get into this, we already have a project in mind to start with and go for it.

            In my case, in a grand experiment to see if I could do it, I chose science fiction and made up a story, A and B on the spot. I came up with a method right out the gate. Then I sat down at the computer and went for it. If I was able to complete the entire thing, I knew I had something going for me.

            I did, and from there, I went on to the next genre and then the next.

            I had plenty of ideas, my mind bursting with them. However, one thing I also had in abundance.


            I think maybe that’s something lacking, to some degree, with many writers and authors nowadays. No, I take that back. Many writers. Authors have obviously got something to print, so they’ve succeeded at least to a point. From there, who knows?


            For the person who can’t decide what to write about, don’t expect miracles from social media. In fact, expect plenty of flack from those that don’t think you even have any business asking.

            On the other hand, what made you want to be a writer in the first place? Something prodded you in that direction? Was it a book, a movie, an incident?

            If you think you’re into writing, are you a reader? If you’re not, you probably need to rethink what you’re doing. If so, what are your favorite books, genres, subject matters?

            To me, it’s always best to write about something you are truly passionate about, let alone interested in. Don’t be one of these tortured artiste types that writes what they hate just because. That is a load of crap.

            Write what you know, what you love, and what you’re interested in. It shows!

            That, my friends, is one reason you get a lot of flack on social media if you start asking for what to write about.

            You should already know what you want to do. Nobody else should be telling you that. Then it’s not coming from you, it’s coming from them.

            Many things can inspire many people. If you go for months, years without coming up with anything to write about, maybe you should either find another passion/hobby or use writing in some other capacity.

            Creativity requires inspiration and originality. By originality, I mean your own take on something, coming from your headspace. Very little if anything is truly original so don’t even fret over that one.


            What do any of us write about?

            Something we’re passionate about and/or something we’re interested in.

            That isn’t something that lends well to others dictating to us.

            When someone else gives us the idea, fine. Many have received an idea that way, though not usually directly solicited. Nothing really wrong with that. In that way, social media and polling other writers can work. However, don’t expect stellar results or responses.

            For the rest of us, it’s a matter of picking and choosing, unless the whole deal is just for that one great idea. One-and-done. There are those out there.

            Some thoughts to ponder.

            Happy writing!


            I originally posted this article in 2019 but because of recent and consistent questions on the forums, I thought it was worth revisiting.

            More and more I see writers seeking some form of writing software that isn’t Word. They’re constantly looking for something…anything as a tool to write with. One might get the impression they absolutely despise anything Microsoft.

That’s not necessarily the correct assumption.



            Many people nowadays don’t write on a conventional keyboard or computer. They use apps and devices. So guess what? As I’ve learned in several painful incidents, apps and what I know of as conventional software aren’t one in the same.

            Therefore, from the feedback I’ve obtained, Word somehow has lost the ball when it comes to the world of apps.

            I do know that at least when it comes to Facebook, I’m no fan of the Facebook app, which I’m forced to use on my phone. If that’s any indication, then…hey, come to think of it, I’m not all that crazy about any of the apps I use on my phone.

            Okay, if I was a writer and had to use an app on a device, I’m all sympathy.


            There are those with keyboards who still don’t want anything to do with Word. Maybe they’re Apple people who hate Microsoft “juss cuzz,” or they somehow came from some other word processor that’s obsolete. Whatever the case, they’ve heard there’s something else out there.


            Many writers are disorganized. They’re scattered about, or have several different programs to compile their characters, plots, towns, locations, statistics, chapters, outlines, special words, bla bla bla. That has brought up the rise of all-in-one writing programs.

            This is something Word doesn’t do. It doesn’t organize, fold, bend, staple, and mutilate all of this for you in one easy to access place. Some of these software packages do it for you on the fly, or supposedly do.

            Some people are gleefully happy to discard Word for this stuff.

            One problem.

            Learning curve.


            While writing software packages can be a cure-all for some people, there is the caveat that you have to learn all this crap. Since you have a complex bunch of programs melded together, you have to learn said complex melded programs, and all the ins and outs. This doesn’t happen overnight, though the learning curve may not be as hard as some things.

            It all depends on how much effort and time you want to put into it and how much you want to take away from your actual writing to get it all done.

            It could be worth it.


            If you’re just starting out, it might be worth it to invest the time, money and training in learning one of these complex writing packages to get a step ahead.

            If you’ve been at things a while and are struggling, it might be worth it.

            If you already have a system that works and are just restless, you’re better off spending all that pent up energy on a plot twist.

            If you’re like me, I already have my methods that work, like yellow stickies on my computer desk, an encyclopedia for my fantasy series which I update as I go along, linear plots, and seat-of-the-pants writing style for everything else. I have no need to fix something that isn’t broke, especially after thirty years of experience with the Microsoft package.


            You’ll notice I didn’t mention any other software package or writing program. First off, this isn’t an instruction article on any of them. I attended a single session on one of them conducted by our own Amanda Skenandore of the Henderson Writer’s Group. While an outstanding instructor, I knew after just a little while, the one she taught, Scrivner I believe (and don’t quote me on the spelling), wasn’t for me and instantly forgot the correct spelling of the name of that software package. She had a few converts at the meeting, but I wasn’t one of them. Everything she taught sounded great for someone who needs organization, but it was also stuff I already do in my own way, using what I already have, with Word alone. I’m not sure if she still uses that software package, but whether she does or not, she’s come out with some outstanding stories and that has more to do with her writing skills than whatever software she uses.

            Happy writing!


Right off the top, I want to say this isn’t an instruction article on the how to’s of dragons. Also, if you’re not into writing fantasy, this probably isn’t going to be your thing. Or is it?


If you write fantasy, the dragon, noble or otherwise, is probably a standard creature, or even a trope of your world. These critters can be from the main subject to just a minor distraction. They might not even be a part of your world, just to be different.

On the other hand, it’s almost come to be expected from most fantasy worlds. What’s fantasy without some kind of dragon?

There are some (actually plenty) of fantasy worlds out there that don’t have them.


Often enough, the story is based on dragons. With magickal powers, breath emissions like fire, ice, and acid to name a few, tremendous strength, the ability to mesmerize, and a range of other superhuman abilities, they’ve earned their status into almost godlike realms.

With that in mind, many stories are woven around this type of world.

They could also just be another “monster in the manual,” something to be dealt with. Usually, they’re one of, if not, the most difficult beasts to fight.

Then again, maybe they’re neutral, and have little to do with anything, except being peripheral to the rest of the story.


Many go right to the D&D Monster Manual for abilities. Or, the author may research real-world legend. Some make up their own design from a meld of stuff they’ve heard or read.

There are no real rules for what your dragons, if you choose to use them, have to be. It’s your world, so it should be up to you to decide what their abilities and appearance are going to be. You’re not bound by any genre rules that require you to make them so and so.

I’m certainly not going to try to tell you or dictate those parameters for you.

Some are going to call bull if you “break the rules,” but who can say what they are for a mythological creature?


This section is for you non-fantasy fiction writers.

Who says a dragon has to be a dragon?

A dragon can be a protagonist or an antagonist?

A dragon can be a character of mythological proportions. Some person with almost mythological abilities. This someone can sweep into your story and either help save the day, or create havoc in a way that may seem mythological. You, as the author, will have to lay out the logistics for the reader. Leave a little mystery, a little mythology to the character, without making the reader suspend their disbelief too much.

Yes, you non-fantasy writers can have your dragons as well, in the form of real people.


In most cases, dragons are either key players, or often ominous creatures (or people) in a story. They’re meant to be so. Some authors choose not to use them at all. Those that do, tend to elevate them into something mythological, something above all other creatures or people in their story. It’s not just a matter of size, but intent.

Happy writing!


            I got kind of a shock when I saw the file date of this, one of my first articles for Fred Central. It was dated in 2011! I’ve been at this for eleven years. I’d been under the impression I started this blog site in 2012. Go figure.

            What inspired this particular revisit was a multitude of books I’ve read lately. The subject of today’s article is tautologies. I wanted to revisit it again because I’ve seen plenty of examples in many mainstream novels, not just self-published types.


One of the things every writer must do is get to the point. It’s your responsibility not only to entertain your reader, but get there with the fewest words possible. Your job is not to impress your reader with how many words you can spew out, or how big a word count you can use to describe what a flower looks like, it’s how you can convey your word picture in the most efficient way possible. Get to the point!


Word economy is a huge factor in the writing and editing process. One of the tricks of the trade is to look for unnecessary words and phrases that can be eliminated, redundancies that don’t add anything, words that bog down the flow of the prose. One way to clean things up is to look for tautologies.


Now, you might ask, what’s a tautology? A tautology is using different words to say the same thing, even if the repetition doesn’t necessarily provide clarity. I had no idea I was doing this until a member of our writer’s group did a presentation on it several years ago (several years ago, in this case, meaning around 2008 or so). It stuck with me. I want to give her credit, but I can’t remember her name. If I come across it later, I’ll announce it because she changed my life! (NOTE: I still haven’t recalled that person’s name…sorry.)

Once I became aware of tautologies, I discovered that I’d embedded many of them into my writing, embarrassing myself in the process, I found several hundred words I could eliminate from an average manuscript. It came as a wakeup call. I think it did the same for many members of our group.

I’m about to list a series of examples to give you all your wakeup call. I’d venture to guess some of you are going to have a bit of a rude awakening. How many of you have phrases like:

Stand up

Sit down

Whisper quietly

Slam hard

Hit hard

Scream loudly

Run fast

Dig deep

Jump up

Jump down

Crawl slowly

Climb up

Drop down

The list goes on. Every one of those word pairs contains chaff at the end…a tautology…an extra word. Dump them! They’re redundant, they’re obvious, your reader already knows!

Of course, there are always exceptions. Or, are there? For instance, what if a character jumps up on a ledge? Instead, how about the character jumps onto the ledge? Or the character jumps down into the pit? Instead, how about the character jumps into the pit. See? Was that so hard?

Now, it’s time to slash and burn. Try this. Check the word count of your MS before you look for tautologies and write that number down. Now do a word search or just do an edit and look for them. When you’re done, check the word count again. You might be surprised.

One note: Make sure when you eliminate the tautology that what you originally wrote still makes sense! Don’t to an auto find/replace as that can lead to many issues. Be sure to scan each example before changing or altering.

Happy editing!


            The worst part (for most people) of writing a book is the marketing. A lot of people dread it. I’m no exception. It’s like begging people to buy your book, or enticing them, or just yelling on a street corner. However you picture it, it is, at least to me, the worst part of the entire publishing process.

            I’ve done plenty, spent plenty, and gained few results. It’s not like I’m with one of the big six publishing houses that already has a marketing machine there to help. I’m with a smaller traditional press where we pretty much have to sell our own book. That’s not to say the big sellers don’t have to do it either, it’s just that they have a huge initial boost through their big publishing machine.

            For the small indie press, traditional or self-published, you’re pretty much on your own.


            By far, the most common way small press authors try to gain an audience is through social media. Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Goodreads are just a few.

            By having a constant presence, you can at least get the word out to people you know, and even strangers given some of the available tools.

            The issue?

            It all costs money to go beyond your friends etc.

            As a heavy Facebook user, I’ve tried their ads on numerous occasions. The results were less than spectacular.


            This is another case of either spending an outrageous amount of money, or going for the cheaper options and still spending more than you get back (usually).

            From my experience, these sites are nothing more than money pits. I know. I can check the amount I spent versus the results and once again, the were less than spectacular.


            I’ve just been introduced (by Amazon) to Amazon Ads.

            Worrying that it’s just another money pit, I made some queries on social media.

            The results varied, but for the most part, the authors that responded spent money and made a bit more into the green than some of the other options.

            The catch?

            Some weird and arcane rules that can get you into trouble if you aren’t careful.

            I actually read the rules, warnings, and legal stuff, and it left me with a bad feeling. Some of the rules seem a bit draconian.

            I mentioned that in my queries and a few responders will never use it because of these rules.

            Others weren’t intimidated and have made at least a little money.

            Then again, those users also gave tips on how they did it.

            Since I haven’t taken the plunge yet, and am not sure if I even qualify given the ominous warning (If You Qualify) statement up front, it all may be a moot point anyway.


            Fortunately, or unfortunately, this is where I’ve had the most luck.

            Outside of a few misses, I’ve managed to sell a book or two at each of these events.

            Some are multiple author events, and a couple were solo in a bookstore.

            I tended to do better at solo signings in a bookstore.

            The issue now?

            With COVID still out there, though things have loosened up a bunch, doing a meet and greet can be risky for some people. It’s not just a matter of shyness, or willingness to get out there, but a real health factor to consider.


            I’ve talked about all of these issues (except Amazon) in the past and the specifics I won’t rehash.

            As a struggling new author, the marketing is by far the most difficult for a slew of reasons. Yet, it’s something you have to do if you want to sell anything. Just publishing the book and making it available isn’t going to do it. Having someone with marketing expertise at your publisher also helps a lot. Having an already established big machine behind you is, of course, the best option. However, we’re not all with the big six, so we have to figure this out on our own.

            Do what you can, what you can afford, and keep searching for the next big thing. It’s the only way your book is going to get out there to anyone but your friends.

            Happy writing!


            A lot of times, it can be hard for an author to find time, though most of us ultimately do or we wouldn’t be published. This applies, of course, to those that don’t make a living at this passion.

            Most of us, whether writers or authors actually work for a living. I’m not implying that writing isn’t work, per se, but that if you’re passionate about writing, it’s not work, but fun.

            That doesn’t mean that life can’t get in the way.

            The other day I was reminded of that when I had to work on a weekend.


            Many if not most writers and/or authors have a routine, otherwise they’d get nothing done.

            This can be any day, time, or frequency. Whatever it takes to get your stories out, there you go.

            When life gets in the way, this routine can be interrupted and for some, it may be hard to get back into the groove. This is especially true if the interruption is for an extended period of time.


            As the title suggests, work can be a big cause for interrupting your routine.

            It could be uneven work hours, overtime, or stress at work.

            Stress at work can be a real inspiration killer.

            Uneven work times can throw you off. Even occasional work changes can do the same.


            For some, taking a break from writing during this stressful period is the way to go.

            The problem is that for some, once the break starts, it may not end even after the stress factors at work are long gone.

            For some, there’s no letup in stress at work. This doesn’t exactly inspire, does it?

            Lucky for me, I have a job I love. When a monkey wrench gets thrown into my routine, it’s a lot harder to resolve the interruption.

            Unfortunately, for many of you, these work interruptions may be chronic. How do you handle it?

            I have to regress a bit to when I worked for an industrial concern, and the stress level was through the roof. This caused significant personal interruptions in my writing schedule. However, it didn’t stop me.

            Since writing was a passion for me for about five years at the time, it was still very intense in my mind, regardless of stress at work.

            Despite all that was happening on the job, writing was a form of stress relief. True, I wasn’t nearly as productive as when I loved what I was doing at work, but I still kept at it.


            Besides looking for inspiration in everything, keeping ideas stuck in my head, or writing them down for future use, I still managed to put out some stuff during this two-year period.

            I completed a couple of short stories and joined a local writers group. I once got involved in a short short – 50-word short story contest. On a slight break from the stress due to a regular routine for a few weeks, I wrote about thirty 50-word short stories for this contest. I didn’t win, but it was a fun and stress-relieving exercise.

            In my most recent bout of working overtime, at a job I love, even concentrating all day and having my weekend routine interrupted, I still found time throughout the day to think of writing, think of something to add to my current WIP (work in progress). I wasn’t able to act on any of it at the time, but I still went over stuff in my mind so that the next time I sat down, I had a better idea of what I wanted to do.


            It doesn’t matter how stressed out I am, or under what circumstances I’m not able to act on my writing, it’s never far from my mind. In fact, it helps me deal with things.

            How about you?

            I think a lot of people daydream, even under the most stressful circumstances. I don’t mean, forget what you’re doing and fail at your job, I mean we learn to cope during lulls and think of other things.

            Even when sick, fantasizing is an escape from the body for a time. While this may not result in any productivity, it may help devise a good plot, or add details to a WIP.

            Then again, when someone is severely sick, it may be hard to concentrate on anything.

            Certain jobs can create this same deal. One can become too focused in success at the job, rather than being physically quashed by harsh treatments.


            Work can be a real inspiration killer, especially if one doesn’t like what they do.

            On the other hand, if fantasizing and inspiration are coping mechanisms, this can be to your advantage. It’s just a matter of either recalling or writing down these inspirations or daydreams when you can find time.

            Happy writing!


            Almost sounds like a dumb question, but let’s think about this a moment. How did you get started in this passion? The best way for me to express this is from my own example. It’s certainly not the only way it’s been done, but I believe my experience is not unique.

            When the muse hit me and I decided I wanted to write, I just did. No second thoughts. No worries about publishing, editing, marketing, critiquing. I wrote for the joy and just assumed I one day might be on the best seller lists. That was never my prime motivation, but I’ll admit it was a factor to want my stories to be out there for others to read. Back then, it never dawned on me that my writing might suck. Not until the second novel.

            When I started The Greenhouse, I’d made contact with not only my lifetime mentor, Carol Davis Luce, but Elizabeth Forrest (Rhondi Vilott). Both experienced authors, they took me under their wings and guided me with my work, gave me pointers and even dared to read some of my stuff. What I got most from the early days, was to edit and re-edit, cut waste, and work on my passivity. Even under those primitive conditions, my chops improved immensely, and I realized I wasn’t such a hot writer, not yet at least. That really hit home when I looked back at my first novel, The Cave. Funny thing is that recently, I resurrected The Cave and it isn’t nearly as bad as I first thought. With some tweaks, it would be a viable manuscript.


            By the time we moved to Indiana, I was well past my third novel, Lusitania Gold and several icky bug short stories. It was those short stories I presented to the Highland Writer’s Group, the very first writers I’d ever been exposed to, face-to-face. I was in for a big shock. Not only were some of these people great writers, they knew how to critique. They were able to show me what was wrong with my writing, and how I could improve it. I listened as they read their work. Some of it blew me away yet I noticed I was at a higher level than about half the group. At least all my effort started to show some payoff.

            At the same time, after writing two-plus novels and multiple short stories, I realized I didn’t know squat! In front of these people, especially the better writers, I felt like a third grader reading a valentine poem! It was a horrible and overwhelming feeling. The key to salvation came from how gentle and giving this group turned out. I’ve preached so many times about seeking out a good writer’s group, and this one fit the bill.

            Despite the very positive experience, that was my first lesson in developing a thick skin.


            After several years and a big move, along with the writer’s group from hell, which I’ve mentioned in earlier posts, I found my comrades in arms, the Henderson Writer’s Group. As my skin thickened, so did my pile of rejections. On top of that, I’d bring in what I thought was a killer chapter, read it to the group and get a bunch of constructive criticism. They’d tear it up! Aaagh! All my hopes and dreams shattered! Ha ha. Add another dent to the old ego, which I don’t really have, but you know what I mean?

            Then, along comes someone who just started writing. Guess what? They presented a story that blew everyone away. The writing was superb, and the story was wow! Talk about depressing! I’d struggled and worked my butt off for years and along came someone that just started.

            I mustn’t forget the teen that showed up at the very first writers’ conference I attended. This kid didn’t even have a full story finished, yet he half-assed pitched an idea to an agent. The agent went crazy and signed the kid on the spot! Sight unseen! Can you believe that? I still don’t know if that deal ever succeeded, but if you want to talk about frustration, there were a bunch of people there that wanted to tear up their manuscripts and walk out the door.

            The world takes all kinds, and if I let that stuff get me down, I should just quit and find something else to do. Through all this, I knew it didn’t matter. I love writing too much.


            To me, this isn’t a competition. That’s an ugly word. This is a passion, an art. A lot of people may disagree with me because sure, it’s also a business if you wish to make money. However, the money won’t be there without the art, the inspiration and the passion. That always comes first. You have to want to do this, regardless. If you think you’re a rank amateur, you will be. If you know you’re a rank amateur, build your skills but don’t let that get in the way of your muse, your drive and your passion. You’ll overcome that one day.

            The good old days.

            Happy writing!


            There are countless genres within the world of fiction. I was a bit surprised to find my first Detach novel, Lusitania Gold fit into that historical fiction category (along with several others). While my intention was never to directly address history of the Lusitania and the era, it became an integral part of the story. Therefore, I had to do it right…well, as right as I could get it.

            Since it’s fiction, what does it mean to be “historical?” How does it fit into the genre?


            Basically, from my understanding, historical fiction is taking real events and fictionalizing them. That’s basically it. Quite often, the stories deal with past eras while some deal with present-day.

            For instance, a story set during the Civil War and circling around, or directly using a famous battle (thanks Robin).

            That’s historical fiction.

            How about a native American school in the late 19th century (thanks Amanda)?

            Historical fiction.


            The funny thing is that I’m not usually into historical fiction. It’s not one of my normal genres. I have enjoyed a few here and there, but in my case, the historical parts are usually part of some other genre. Like Lusitania Gold, it’s meant to be an adventure/thriller keyed off of a historical precedent, the sinking of the Lusitania.

            As I like to say, “then mayhem ensues.”

            When I think about many of the thrillers I’ve read, history plays a big part of setting the scene, if not directly stealing from reality.


            History is supposedly written in stone. However, things are not always what they seem in reality. It depends on who wrote it and their interpretation of the facts.


            Yeah, that can be a loaded word.

            As writers, when we come up with something, and want to use a historical setting, it’s more than likely something we’ve always been fascinated with, even if we don’t normally read much non-fiction. It could be some event that we heard about in school or saw in a movie that sparks that interest.

            Hence, a historical fiction story.


            Many times, a historical fiction story has little to do with the actual events. They may just be a background to something else that happened to the hero.

            On the other hand, what if things didn’t happen as depicted in the history books? Altering history for the sake of a good story is a great example of historical fiction.

            I can go back to the old cliché plot, what if Hitler never died? What if he really lived out his life in South America (or wherever). This plot is certainly not new but makes a good example of historical fiction and altering real events to fit the story.

            In that respect, that’s exactly what happens with Lusitania Gold. I took a real event and made my own history.


            Obviously, the story isn’t real in most cases. After all, your fiction isn’t supposed to be a history lesson. Yet, whether using history as a background or altering real events to devious purposes, there’s still a line that has to be maintained to keep your credibility.

            When writing historical fiction, you need to get the real details accurate, or you risk losing half or more of your audience.

            When someone is attracted to your story (Hitler, Civil War, whatever…), there’s a good chance they know a bit about that time period and details.

            As an author, it’s up to you to research.


            When writing historical fiction, you need to do your due diligence. You need to get the real facts you use accurate as best as you can.

            When I say best as you can, I mean, anything you use that’s real should be verified for the time period.

            They didn’t use revolvers in medieval times. Duh…

            When the story is based in a real town, you can only stretch the setting so much. Then again, many authors, me included, give a disclaimer up front that we altered certain things for story purposes. That’s fine and dandy unless you go way off. Then again, if you’re up front about severely distorting reality, that’s a pass.

            On the other hand, writing a historical fiction piece set during a time period or an event requires more due diligence to make it credible.

            The little things count. For instance, certain things could not have happened during the events of the story because they weren’t invented yet. Unless the story is science fiction, you have a more rigid line to tow.


            Depending on the specific genre, you can get away with certain inaccuracies. If you do, generally, you have to justify them, whatever they are.

            For instance, you’re in a medieval setting in France.

            Your hero has a revolver.

            It might as well be a space laser, given the time period.

            How do you justify it?

            Time travel, for instance.

            On the other hand, your story is set in the Civil War. Your characters actions and technology don’t fit, or is rife with errors.

            It’s hard to excuse sloppy research, especially when you don’t have an excuse up front.

            When someone who knows the era reads your book, they’re likely to not only put it down, but throw it down if it’s way off the mark.

            To do historical fiction right, disregarding altered reality, you need to do the research and keep it as real as possible for the time period.


            Historical fiction can be a fascinating subject. The idea is to get the environmental, technological, and people details correct for the time period.

            If not, you can lose your audience in a heartbeat.

            Happy writing!


            If you look back at some of my articles, you’ll see that I’ve either talked directly about, or talked around these subjects. As I browse the Facebook forums, I see threads almost daily addressing both motivation and discipline in one fashion or other.

            In fact…I was inspired to repeat this article after some recent posts. Plus, it’s great for new subscribers.

            It still boils down to this: Why are you doing this? Why are you writing?


            While you may have started all enthused/motivated and put out a big burst of effort, once you got into the reality of writing, you found that it wasn’t magic. While some struck lightning in a bottle, little ole’ you could never catch a break.

            Your friends or even frenemies who write that “crappy stuff” got all the luck and got the big deals, or made the big sales.

            You, on the other hand, had to sit back and could barely make anyone notice.

            It burns you up.

            Why should you bother? Why should you continue on?


            Before we even get to the publishing stage, you get that fantastic idea, you start to write, but get stuck. Or, you just run out of steam.

            For others, it flows out. They can sit down any time and slam it out, page-after-page, lay down their ideas and worry about cleaning it up later.

            Some have to pick apart each page as they go. It takes them forever to crawl out a single chapter because they have to make it perfect before they go on. For many, this means losing sight of what you started to write in the first place.

            Some of you procrastinate. You’re burning with ideas, maybe even write furious notes. However, on the execution, everything falls apart. You’ll get to it tomorrow. Then the next day, then the next, then the next until it never gets done.

            At the same time, your bud has already moved on to the second or third book.


            I’ve mentioned this numerous times not only here, but in the forums. It’s one of my mantras. Is writing a hobby, a torture, or a passion? If it’s the first two, I suggest you find something else to do.

            If it’s a passion, but you still have certain of those personality quirks that hold you back, you have to think about why you’re writing this particular “masterpiece” in the first place.

            However, forgetting why you’re writing, and speaking strictly of motivation, you started a novel.


            What’s the point?

            Regardless of why you’re doing it, you have to think of why you should finish it. If you have no compelling reason to do so, don’t! Move on. However, if you DO have a compelling reason to complete this novel, think about it and focus on that as your motivation.

            Why have you slowed down or stopped writing?

            Has life got in the way?

            Has the inspiration stopped?

            Have you hit a writing roadblock – did you write yourself into a corner?

            Think about what you originally wanted to accomplish with this project. If you still get excited about it, there’s your motivation.

            If you aren’t excited about it, or if you dread it…or if it don’t feel right, stop and figure what went wrong and fix it. If that doesn’t work, maybe it’s time to abandon the project and start another one. Let this thing sit for another time when the muse may strike again.

            If you have no motivation, it’ll never get done.

            Jealousy of someone else’s success isn’t motivation.

            Motivation is believing you have something great and working for it. Anything less will get you less.


            For some, procrastination is natural. Getting it done tomorrow is normal, except tomorrow never comes and what may have started in a great burst of energy stays half done, or with some, never gets started.

            Discipline is setting up a time and place and sticking to it. A schedule, if need be. Some writers cannot work that way. I’m one of them. I write when I write. Period. No schedule. That doesn’t mean I don’t get anything done, because I do. I write when I feel like it, which is pretty much all the time. However, that doesn’t necessarily mean I’m always writing on my current novel, because I write lots of other stuff at the same time. I get to the novel when I have a mind, and I make significant progress. I have no problem with either motivation or discipline.

            For some of you, you NEED discipline because you’re not inclined to stick with things as well as I do.

            Set a schedule and stick to it. This means sit down at a certain time and do something. I don’t necessarily mean write so-and-so many pages a day. That’s too restrictive and rigid. While that might work for some people, what I recommend is that you sit down and do something creative with your story. It might be a few pages, it might be a chapter. It might be research. It might be re-reading a portion, or checking continuity somewhere.

            Discipline means working on the project on a regular basis.

            Little-by-little, the work will get dun didded!


            Nobody can make your luck for you except you. The first step it to actually complete something. The second step is to never give up. Motivation and discipline.

            Happy writing!



One of the most dreaded “rules” of fiction writing, and one of the least understood by new writers, is point of view (POV). POV is either whoever is speaking, thinking, driving the scene, or telling the story.

Because there seems to be a host of arbitrary rules for new writers doesn’t mean they’re not good ideas. POV is the perfect example. Have you ever read a book and discovered there was something about it that didn’t sit right? Maybe you skipped whole paragraphs, sections, or reached certain points where you were confused, lost, and had no idea what was going on. POV could be the problem.

Before we get into the mechanics of using POV, let’s discuss a few (but not all) types of POV. There’s first-person, where the story is told through the eyes of the character. In this type of story, you’ll see a lot of I’s, me’s and my’s throughout. I picked myself off the ground and rushed to the door. Many authors prefer this viewpoint as they feel the reader will become more immersed in the character if they’re seeing what that character is seeing through their eyes. I personally despise that point of view, but that’s a whole ‘nuther blog and not the point of this presentation.

Another type of viewpoint is omniscient. The story is told through the eyes of “God,” an omnipotent viewpoint as if it were being told by an all-seeing being. The story is not seen or told by a character but by a narrator (the author). Things are not seen through the eyes of the characters. If it’s told well, the viewpoint is neutral. If not, it gets into something called author intrusion which jerks the reader out of the story and into the personality of the author. The characters see and know things they shouldn’t and couldn’t because the author (or God) tells you ahead of time. The author might spoil things for you by foretelling events you shouldn’t know until the characters discover them.

The most commonly used POV and the one I prefer is third-person, past-tense (versus present tense). In third-person, the story is told through the eyes of a character, but as it has happened. In other words, instead of “I put on my hat and rushed through the door.” It would be “Jim put on his hat and rushed through the door.” In third person, you, as the author have a lot more leeway to describe things and show things that first-person doesn’t allow. In first-person, action scenes don’t play out near as well as they do in third.

Since I mentioned past-tense, I should also mention present-tense. Either first or third can be written in present-tense. Some authors feel that the story is more immediate or more urgent if written in present-tense. For example, in first person, “I put my hat on and rush through the door.” Or in third person, “Jim puts his hat on and rushes through the door.”

For me, as a reader, I find that anything written in present-tense drives me nuts. It’s a personal preference, but I’ll put a book down because I can’t get through one written in that style. I won’t mention the author’s name (but her initials are PC… cough cough). I’m still a big fan when she writes third-person, past-tense. Unfortunately, she tends to write this wretched first-person present-tense. It’s so irritating, I can hardly get through a paragraph let alone an entire book. I know another author that writes third-person present-tense. Same thing. Can’t read it.

Some authors like to mix POV’s. In the writing world, that is perfectly acceptable and seems to be a trendy thing to do, though it can be hard to pull off successfully. The most common used to be third-person and omniscient. However, keep in mind that these POV shifts are from one chapter or scene to the next, NOT mixed together (or there not supposed to be)! Another style that is becoming more common is first and third-person. That’s why I always leaf through books by authors I haven’t read. I’ve been tricked before. I don’t like first-person, and I don’t like present-tense, so I specifically leaf through a book and look for those features.

Regardless of which POV you decide to go for, there are some mechanical rules you need to follow. We’ll go over them in part.


To use POV effectively, each scene should be told through the eyes of one character, the one driving that scene. In other words, that scene is seen, heard and felt by a specific character, not several at the same time. Every sentence should be how that character would see or perceive what’s going on. Unless your character is a mind reader, he or she cannot tell what another character is thinking. At the same time, they cannot see something that’s physically impossible for them to see, or understand things they have no knowledge of (this is where first-person can become awkward, especially in intense action scenes). Other characters can speak and perform actions, but any thoughts or feelings must be expressed only through the eyes of the character driving the scene.

If another character expresses feelings or thoughts within a scene, they must be visual or audio so that the main character of that scene can see, hear or feel them and perceive them. For example, the POV character of the scene is Jane. During the scene, Alex is disappointed in something. How do we know this? Jane has to see or perceive this by something Alex says, the expression on his face, or something he does, like his body language. Since it’s Jane’s scene, she has to perceive everything that’s happening. It can’t be Alex. That would be a POV violation. It can’t be you, the author, or that would be author intrusion. Both of these violations can jerk the reader out of the story. If Jane perceives Alex’s disappointment, it’s a perfectly natural way to keep the reader immersed.

Randall didn’t like the idea of walking down that alley. This first sentence establishes the scene in Randall’s POV. He had been attacked before. He was sure some deranged killer lurked behind that green dumpster on the right side. Now this continues his POV as he thinks of all the bad things that could happen by walking down that alley.

The next paragraph continues. Jeremy had to laugh at Randall’s paranoia. The guy was a total wimp. This is a POV violation. The scene is Randall’s, yet the author jumps into Jeremy’s head within the same scene. Now the reader has two different heads to contend with, and has to shift POV. This is likely to confuse the reader. Randall can’t possibly know what Jeremy is thinking, so how does he know this?

You can correct his by changing what Jeremy sees into dialogue. Jeremy laughed. “Man, you’re the most paranoid guy I know. You’re a total wimp.” Turning Jeremy’s thoughts into dialogue keeps the scene in Randall’s POV because now Randall can hear and react to what Jeremy says. The dialogue reflects what Jeremy is thinking.

Randall stepped down the alley with Jeremy in tow. His eyes bored into every shadow. What he didn’t know was that the alley was empty and he was worried for nothing. The first two sentences are solidly in Randall’s POV. However, the third sentence is omniscient and author intrusion. In other words, Jeremy couldn’t possibly know what is going to happen, and the author is blatantly telling you. The fix for that third sentence is: When they reached the other end of the alley, he sighed with relief. It was empty. This puts the same thought solidly into his POV.

When the POV changes within a paragraph or a scene, it’s known as head-hopping. This is the sign of an amateur and should be avoided. Sure, you’ll see some big-name authors doing it, some because they can get away with it, others under the guise of style or technique, but those are garbage excuses for poor writing. The thing is that as a new writer, no editor or agent worth their salt is going to let you get away with it. Not only that, you’re going to make it harder on your readers and that’s something you don’t want to do.

There’s nothing wrong with changing POV within a story. However, it needs to be done in the right way. If you want to get into another character’s head, change scenes, or start a new chapter.

Another thing about POV. First, always start and stop a scene or chapter in that character’s dialogue, thoughts or actions. I’ll go more into that in another blog on structuring chapters, but always start a scene or chapter with either dialogue, some action or thought from that character. Second, always end it with their dialogue, thought or action.

By keeping your POV’s straight, your readers will appreciate it whether consciously or unconsciously and you’ll have one less excuse for an agent to toss your submission into the reject pile.

Happy writing!


            I just read a great book that I almost put down after the first page. Really a half page, with the chapter number in the middle of the page halfway down, follows the pattern of many books. I’m emphasizing this to put things in perspective.

            The story started so passive I couldn’t help but count the was’s. There were two paragraphs. The first short three-sentence paragraph was clean. The second one had eight, that’s eight was’s in it. It was downhill from there. The same pattern continued for seven pages before the book finally took off. If it wasn’t for the reputation (and subsequent movie that just came out) from this author, I wouldn’t have continued. At least it was written in third-person, past-tense.

            It’s a good thing I decided to keep going because it turned out to be a great read. However, I could just as easily have tossed it because of those first seven pages. Anyone heard of those first-page read contests?

            This never would’ve made first pass at a writer’s group, let alone any editor worth their salt. Of course, this author has a rep and lots of power, so he could write the phone book and his editor will be saying “Yes Sir!” We, as unknowns, and low-down-the-totem-pole authors would be ostracized, criticized and sent back to writing school. To be blunt, the writing sucked, at least at first. It could’ve been so much better, and I think the author did his audience a great disservice. However, what do I know? He’s got the millions and I don’t.

            There’s nothing wrong with a little passivity in your writing. It’s part of our language. However, there’s a time and place for it and should be sprinkled throughout the story, not slammed into every sentence and paragraph. Active is almost always better than passive and makes your writing so much stronger. Examples:

            “Jodi had been a great friend but she stabbed Mark in the back.”

            You should do a word search through your manuscript and get rid of every had been in your narrative, except in dialogue, and they should be used sparingly!

            “Once a great friend, Jodi stabbed Mark in the back.”

            This revised sentence is much more active.

            How about this old standby:

            “It was a dark and stormy night.”

            How would you fix that and make it more active?

            “The dark and stormy night raged outside the window.”

            That is one of many ways to fix the sentence.

            “It should’ve been the best way to take care of what was once a grand scheme.”


            “The solution they came up with did not take care of the once grand scheme.”

            You can’t get rid of every passive word. That would make your prose too flat and dry. However, you should cut them down drastically.

            You can use passive words in dialogue if you don’t overdo it.

            Leave a few sprinkled throughout your prose, especially a was here and there.

            Words and word combinations to get rid of.



            Anything connected with been

            should’ve been

            has been

            had been

            had’ve been

            would’ve been


            There are probably more I’m not thinking of right now, but those are a good start.

            What you do when you find one in a sentence is rethink the sentence. Try to reword it so that the sentence says the same thing, but it doesn’t have to use those words and it’s active, in other words, it moves forward instead of backward (or stands still). All of these passive words move backward or nowhere. They’re not active. Active words move forward, move somewhere.

            I’m not immune to passive either. I once read an excerpt from Meleena’s Adventures – Gods Of The Blue Mountains at the Henderson Writer’s Group and our el-presidente, who’s also an editor, caught me on several passive sentences. Forest through the trees!

            Until next time…

            Happy writing!


            Our illustrious former Henderson Writer’s Group el-presidente, Linda Webber, presented grammar lessons each week on the back of our meeting agendas. The gist of them were the improper use of words. I thought I’d revisit this 2017 series as it still applies today.


            I once wrote a screenplay with my bud, Doug Lubahn (RIP), a famous musician. During our correspondence, I once told him I was waiting with “baited” breath instead of “bated” breath. He’s never let me live that one down.

            The proper use of words is something a lot of writers, especially newbies don’t always get. So, for your reading pleasure, below is a list of words and how to use them properly.

            The list is not near complete, so that’s why this is called Grammar Lesson One.

            Once again, my many thanks to Linda Webber, who went through the trouble to compile these words all in one place for me to steal and present to you here at Fred Central.

These are common words that are often used out of context. It can be a quandary for a writer and a quick trip to a dictionary or online.


            The first one is lie, lay, laid and lain.

                                    Present tense                          Past tense                   Past Participle

Be recumbent              Lie                                           Lay                              Lain


Joe is going to lie down. Beth lay on the bed for two hours. Margaret had lain on the bed for two hours.

Deposit                        Lay                                          Laid                             Laid

(set down)

Joe will lay the watch on the nightstand. Beth laid the watch on the nightstand. Margaret had laid the watch on the nightstand.

Tell an untruth            Lie                                           Lied                             Lied


Don’t lie, Joe. Beth lied when she said she liked you. Margaret had lied that night she was there.


Farther is something you can measure as in distance.

How much farther is the gas station?

Further is a continuation of a thought or idea – figurative distance.

Nothing could be further from the truth.


All together    all in one place, all at once

We gather all together to celebrate!

Altogether      completely, on the whole

That’s altogether a separate issue.

Along              moving or extending horizontally on

Move along, keep up the pace!

A long             referring to something of great length

That’s a long way!

Aloud              out loud

Meleena didn’t mean to say it aloud.

Allowed          permitted

No dogs allowed!

Altar               a sacred table in a church

She gazed up at the blood dripping from the stone altar.

Alter               to change

It’s not right to alter the sacred document.

Amoral           not concerned with right or wrong

They have an amoral view of life.

Immoral         not following accepted moral standards

Murder is an immoral way to handle that.


            There’s sure to be more to come. I’ve outlined a few common mistakes writer’s make, whether through lack of knowledge or from just typos, we all do it occasionally. It’s good to catch this stuff before we get caught with “baited” breath.

Happy writing!


            We’re back with another set of similar sounding words with entirely different meanings.

            Our illustrious former Henderson Writer’s Group el-presidente, Linda Webber, used to present grammar lessons each week on the back of our meeting agendas. The gist of them were the improper use of words.

           As a reminder, I’ll add the standard intro below before I get into the word list.


            I once wrote a screenplay with my bud, Doug Lubahn (RIP), a famous musician. During our correspondence, I told him I was waiting with “baited” breath instead of “bated” breath. He never let me live that one down.

            The proper use of words is something a lot of writers don’t always get, especially new ones. So, for your reading pleasure, below is a list of words and how to use them properly.

            The list is not near complete, so that’s why this is called Grammar Lesson Three.

            Once again, my many thanks to Linda Webber, who went through the trouble to compile these words all in one place for me to steal and present to you here at Fred Central.

These are common words that are often used out of context. They can be a quandary for a writer, and a quick trip to a dictionary, or online.


To                   Indicates motion

He went to the store.

Too                 Also, or excessively

She had too much to drink.

Two                The number two

There are two examples of this problem to deal with.

Then               A point in time

If you do it then, it will be better.

Than               A method of comparison

If you do it this way rather than that way, it’ll work better.

There              A place

Put it there.

They’re           They are

They’re the best at what they do.

Their               It belongs to them

It’s their problem, not ours.

Your               It belongs to you

It’s your problem, not mine.

You’re                        You are

You’re the greatest.

Were               Past tense of are

We were happy before that happened.

We’re              We are

In some ways, we’re never going to achieve that.

Where             A place

Where is it?

Bated              In great suspense

We’ve been waiting with bated breath.

Baited             With bait attached or inserted

Mary baited the hook and tossed out her line.

Bazaar            A Middle Eastern market

We explored the Bazaar on our last trip to Istanbul.

Bizarre           Strange

That was a bizarre song structure.

Berth              A bunk in a ship or train

Joe slipped into his berth and closed his eyes to ride out the rough seas.

Birth               The emergence of a baby from the womb

Jane gave birth to a baby girl.

Born               Having started life

I was born under a bad sign.

Borne              Carried

It was hard to imagine having borne such a heavy burden.

Bough             A branch of a tree

Jess ran for the heavy bough to gain shelter from the rain.

Bow                To bend the head down, or the front of a ship

Skip moved along the deck to the bow to get a better view of the ship ahead of them.


            Once again, thanks to Linda Webber for her hard work putting these original words together!

            Happy writing!


            We’re back with another set of similar sounding words with entirely different meanings.

Our illustrious former Henderson Writer’s Group el-presidente, Linda Webber, used to present grammar lessons each week on the back of our meeting agendas before she moved on to greener pastures (literally). The gist of them are the improper use of words.

As a reminder, I’ll add the standard intro below before I get into the word list.


            I once wrote a screenplay with my bud, Doug Lubahn (RIP), a famous musician. During our correspondence, I told him I was waiting with “baited” breath instead of “bated” breath. He never let me live that one down.

            The proper use of words is something a lot of writers don’t always get. So, for your reading pleasure, below is a list of words and how to use them properly.

            The list is not near complete, so that’s why this is called Grammar Lesson Four.

            Once again, my many thanks to Linda Webber, who has gone through the trouble to compile these words all in one place for me to steal and present to you here at Fred Central.

These are common words that are often used out of context. They can be a quandary for a writer, and a quick trip to a dictionary, or online.


Appraise                     To assess

I’ll appraise the house’s value next week.

Apprise                       To inform someone

Tomorrow, Mary would apprise the committee of the bad news.

Assent                         Agreement, approval

Joe gave his assent with a nod.

Ascent                         The action of rising or climbing up

The balloon began its ascent into the heavens.

Aural                          Relating to the ears or hearing

The band was an aural assault with their wall of amps set at full volume.

Oral                            Relating to the mouth or spoken

Marvin gave an oral report instead of a written one.

Balmy                         Pleasantly warm

The balmy day lent itself to water skiing.

Barmy                        Foolish or crazy

He was a barmy sort, prone to rash actions.

Bare                            Naked, or to uncover

She came out of the shower bare, didn’t bother with a towel and never blinked an eye when he walked in on her.

Bear                            To carry or put up with

It was too much frustration for one person to bear.

Accept                        To agree, to receive or do

He was ready to accept the consequences.

Except                        Not including

It was okay, except for that one thing.

Adverse                      Unfavorable or harmful

After all, there were adverse consequences to shooting him.

Averse                        Strong disliking or opposed

She had such an averse reaction to him, it was clear on her face.

Advice                        Recommendations about what to do

My advice is usually right.

Advise                         To recommend something

His lawyer can advise you before you make another move.

Affect                         To change or make a difference to

If you do this, you can affect the outcome.

Effect                          A result or to bring about a result.

When he spilled the acid, its effect on the Ph of the entire lake was instantaneous.

Aisle                            A passage between rows of seats

She walked down the aisle in the theatre.

Isle                              An island

The ship steered clear of the small isle and headed for the deep channel.


            Once again, thanks to Linda Webber for her hard work putting these original words together!

            Happy writing!


            We’re back with another set of similar sounding words with entirely different meanings.

Our illustrious former Henderson Writer’s Group el-presidente, Linda Webber, used to present grammar lessons each week on the back of our meeting agendas. The gist of them were the improper use of words.

As a reminder, I’ll add the standard intro below before I get into the word list.


            I once wrote a screenplay with my bud, Doug Lubahn (RIP), a famous musician. During our correspondence, I once told him I was waiting with “baited” breath instead of “bated” breath. He never let me live that one down.

            The proper use of words is something a lot of writers don’t always get. So, for your reading pleasure, below is a list of words and how to use them properly.

            The list is not near complete, so that’s why this is called Grammar Lesson Five.

            Once again, my many thanks to Linda Webber, who went through the trouble to compile these words all in one place for me to steal and present to you here at Fred Central.

These are common words that are often used out of context. They can be a quandary for a writer, and a quick trip to a dictionary, or on line can solve them, but I’ve cut to the chase.


Elicit                           To draw out a reply or reaction

I’ll elicit a response from him when the time comes.

Illicit                            Not allowed by the law or rules

Their illicit activities would get them thrown in jail sooner or later.

Ensure                        To make sure that something will happen

Are you ready to ensure the trap will spring when the time comes?

Insure                         To provide compensation if a person dies or property is damaged

We can insure the car only for its resale value.

Envelop                      To cover or surround

She let the blanket envelop her.

Envelope                    A paper container for a letter

He licked the envelope and sealed it before mailing.

Exercise                      Physical activity – to do physical activity

Exercise is the only way to keep in shape.

Exorcise                      To drive out an evil spirit

It was all the priest could do to exorcise the demon.

Fawn                          A young deer – light brown

The fawn was fawn colored. (Couldn’t resist that one!)

Faun                           A mythical being, part man, part goat

The faun guided Cyrill through the labyrinth.

Flaunt                         To display ostentatiously

She flaunted her assets to the male crowd.

Flout                           To disregard a rule

It’s dumb to flout safety.

Flounder                    To move clumsily – to have difficulty doing something

He floundered on the dance floor.

Founder                     To fail

You’re going to founder if you do it that way.

Appraise                     To assess

We’ll need to appraise the house before we can set a price.

Apprise                       To inform someone

You should apprise Joe of what just happened.

Assent                         Agreement, approval

She nodded her assent.

Ascent                         The action of rising or climbing up

They began their ascent of the mountain.

Aural                          Relating to the ears or hearing

It was a thunderous aural display of rock music.

Oral                            Relating to the mouth – spoken

She gave an oral presentation to the board.

Balmy                         Pleasantly warm

It was a balmy day up on the mountain.

Barmy                        Foolish, crazy

He had a barmy sense of right and wrong.

Bare                            Naked – to uncover

He was bare except for a loincloth.

Bear                            To carry, put up with (or the animal)

It was too much weight to bear.

Bated                          In great suspense

She waited with bated breath.

Baited                         With bait attached or inserted – lured

He baited the thieves with an unlocked car.

Titillate                       To arouse interest

She titillated him with a swerve of her hip.

Titivate                       To make more attractive

The cat titivated himself by licking his paws and preening in front of the female.

Tortuous                    Full of twists – complex

The book had a tortuous plot.

Torturous                   Full of pain and suffering

It was a torturous journey.

Wreath                       A ring-shaped arrangement of flowers

He placed a wreath on the gravestone.

Wreathe                     To surround or encircle

The fairies wreathed her before she had a chance to get away.

Yoke                           A wooden crosspiece for harnessing a pair of oxen

The yoke snapped, releasing the two beasts.

Yolk                            The yellow center of an egg

My egg had a double yolk.


            Once again, thanks to Linda Webber for her hard work putting these original words together!

            Happy writing!


            We’re back with another set of similar sounding words with entirely different meanings.

            Our illustrious former Henderson Writer’s Group el-presidente, Linda Webber, used to present grammar lessons each week on the back of our meeting agendas. The gist of them were the improper use of words.

            As a reminder, I’ll add the standard intro below before I get into the word list.


            I once wrote a screenplay with my bud, Doug Lubahn (RIP), a famous musician. During our correspondence, I once told him I was waiting with “baited” breath instead of “bated” breath. He never let me live that one down.

            The proper use of words is something a lot of writers don’t always get. For your reading pleasure, below is a list of words and how to use them properly.

            The list is not near complete, so that’s why this is called Grammar Lesson Six.

            Once again, my many thanks to Linda Webber, who has gone through the trouble to compile these words all in one place for me to steal and present to you here at Fred Central.

These are common words that are often used out of context. They can be a quandary for a writer, and warrant a quick trip to a dictionary, or online.


Forbear                      To refrain

Joe could not forbear a smile.

Forebare                    An ancestor

His forebares were early pioneers to this territory.

Foreward                   An introduction to a book

The foreward to Cindy’s book was elaborate but unnecessary.

Forward                     Onward, ahead

It’s time to move forward with our plan.

Freeze                         To turn to ice

If you leave it outside today, it’s going to freeze.

Frieze                          A decoration along a wall

I attempted to strip the paint from the frieze without damaging the detail.

Grisly                          Gruesome, revolting

The horror movie was full of grisly scenes.

Grizzly                        A type of bear

It’s a good idea to avoid the grizzly bear in the woods.

Hoard                         A store of items

The homeless man guarded his hoard of cans jealously.

Horde                         A large crowd of people

The Mongolian horde stormed the castle.

Imply                          To suggest indirectly

Are you implying that I’m guilty?

Infer                           To draw a conclusion

Without any evidence, his testimony inferred that Roger was guilty.

Pole                             A long, slender piece of wood

She used the pole to push the boat along in the canal.

Poll                              Pertaining to voting in an election

We polled the democrats and republicans in the district to see who had the edge.

Pour                            To flow or cause to flow

She poured the milk into the pan.

Pore                            A tiny opening: To study something closely

Stephanie pored over the document to see if she could make sense of it.

Practice                      The use of an idea or method: Work or business of a doctor, dentist, etc.

The doctor’s practice is in that building over there.

Practise                       To do something repeatedly to gain skill: To do something regularly

(NOTE: This is also the British spelling of the word. American English usually uses the C instead of the S. It covers both definitions.)

We went to band practise but spent most of the time partying.

Prescribe                    To authorize the use of medicine: To order authoritatively

The doctor prescribed ampicillin in a very small dose.

Proscribe                    To officially forbid something

The council proscribed dancing on the holiday.

Principal                     Most important: Head of a school

The principal shut down the school in order to address a gun threat.

Principle                     A fundamental rule or belief

A fundamental principle of drumming is the paradiddle.

Sceptic                        A person incline to doubt

There are true believers who go on faith, and sceptics who won’t believe it unless they see it.

Septic                          Infected with bacteria

The leg wound went septic because it was left untreated.

Elusive                        Difficult to find, catch or achieve

The fish made elusive targets, especially with the wrong bait.

Illusive                        Deceptive, illusory

The magician used illusive movements to fool the eye.


            Once again, thanks to Linda Webber for her hard work putting these original words together!

            Happy writing!


            We’re back with another set of similar sounding words with entirely different meanings.

Our illustrious former Henderson Writer’s Group el-presidente, Linda Webber, presented grammar lessons each week on the back of our meeting agendas. The gist of them were the improper use of words.

As a reminder, I’ll add the standard intro below before I get into the word list.


            I once wrote a screenplay with my bud, Doug Lubahn (RIP), a famous musician. During our correspondence, I once told him I was waiting with “baited” breath instead of “bated” breath. He’s never let me live that one down.

            The proper use of words is something a lot of writers don’t always get. For your reading pleasure, below is a list of words and how to use them properly.

            The list is not near complete, so that’s why this is called Grammar Lesson Seven.

            Once again, my many thanks to Linda Webber, who has gone through the trouble to compile these words all in one place for me to steal and present to you here at Fred Central.

These are common words that are often used out of context. They can be a quandary for a writer, and a quick trip to a dictionary, or online.


Loath                          Reluctant, unwilling

She was loath to eat the burger.

Loathe                        To hate

I loathed getting a haircut.

Loose                          To unfasten: To set free

She let the squirrel loose and it scampered off

Lose                            To be deprived of, to be unable to find

If you don’t put your wallet back in your pocket, you’re going to lose it.

Meter                          A measuring device

The gas meter showed a large consumption the past month.

Metre                          A metric unit, rhythm in verse

Carl tried to get the metre of the chorus so he could keep up with the song.

Militate                       To be a powerful factor against

The two parties’ views militate against a common core of reference.

Mitigate                      To make less severe

Because he gave them the location of the loot, that mitigated his sentence to six months instead of a year.

Palate                          The roof of the mouth

The pudding slid smooth against his palate.

Palette                         A board for mixing colors

She dabbed three colored paints together on the palette and created ochre.

Pedal                           A foot-operated lever

Randy had never used a clutch pedal before and when he tried, he stalled the truck.

Peddle                         To sell goods

Oscar peddled dry goods at the fair.

Council                       A group of people who manage or advise

The city council voted on the measure three to one.

Counsel                      Advice, or to advise

I really appreciated my dad’s counsel when I was growing up, though I didn’t show it much.

Cue                             A signal for action or a wooden rod

Stephanie took her cue from the director and hit the stage.

Queue                         A line of people or vehicles

The queue to get in to see the Tut exhibit was over a mile long.

Curb                           To keep something in check or a control or limit

I’ve been told to curb my enthusiasm by my pessimistic friend.

Kerb                           In British English it’s the stone edge of pavement

Sally tripped over the kerb when she crossed the street.

Currant                      A dried grape

My best friend loves currant pie, but I can’t stand it.

Current                      Happening now, or a flow of water, air or electricity

Jack eased the dingy out into the river where the current pushed it further downstream.

Defuse                        To make a situation less tense

The cops came in to defuse the situation, but their uniforms only added to the tension.

Diffuse                                    To spread over a wide area

The dandelion spread in a diffuse pattern over the lawn.


            Once again, thanks to Linda Webber for her hard work putting these original words together!

            Happy writing!


            As many of you know, marketing sucks. Of all the things about writing that I love, marketing is the one that gets my stomach grinding. Having to go out and “beg” people to buy my book rubs me wrong, yet without marketing, nobody will know I even exist.

            Due to the pandemic, it’s been especially hard to find ways to market a book electronically. Since the pandemic started, I’ve only done two…mark that two…live appearances. While I consider one of them a victory because I sold a book, it was still a lot of exposure to risk for such paltry results (in one way of looking at it).

            I’ve tried various social media things, including Facebook and book advertising web sites. The results were far less than spectacular.

            Not too long ago, I got an e-mail from Amazon touting their Amazon Ads campaign method.

            While I was, and still am a bit skeptical, I decided to give it a try.


            Amazon Ads is a place to market your book worldwide using key words and bids. The better the keyword, and the higher the bid, the more likely someone is going to click on your book and maybe purchase it.

            That’s it in a nutshell.

            However, getting results is a lot more complicated!


            I’m not all that hot on the web site, which is the “Books And Marketing” tab on your Amazon Author Page, which you have to create first, by the way.

            The author page is not all that hard to set up. The key is having professional looking content. Not that hard.

            Now, as for the Books And Marketing tab, this is where things get confusing. The site isn’t in the least bit intuitive. You really have to know what you’re doing, or you can end up doing an expensive “hunt and peck” approach. That, to me, isn’t a great way to get things done.

            The biggest beef is the navigation, which is pretty difficult when you have to once again, hunt and peck to figure out what to do, and then remember those sometimes complicated moves to get there.


            After polling several authors to see if it was worth it, I decided it wouldn’t hurt to try.

            Setting up a campaign was a matter of choosing which book to sell, making sure BOTH paper and e-book were represented, and then choosing how to go about the ads.

            You can use the automatic setting, which for some, is the simplest, but also the least effective way to go. Amazon decides what’s what and if you’re going to depend on them to do it the best for your book, you might as well just dump the money down the toilet and flush.

            By doing it manually, you have a better chance of avoiding that.

            First thing is a budget cap.


            If you don’t want to go broke, and end up with a huge bill, you need to set a daily budget cap. Some go real cheap and others go for broke. I chose a moderate $5 a day.


            Now, this is also a key ingredient. By setting dynamic bidding, Amazon only charges under certain circumstances. Someone (of thousands clicking on a keyword) has to click on your ad. Amazon will charge so much for this. Then if someone actually buys your book, they charge a bit more to get their cut of the sale (which they already do even if you don’t use the Ads campaign).

            In the next phase I’ll go over keywords. This is enough to wrap your head around for the moment!

            In the meantime, happy writing!


            As many of you know, marketing sucks. Of all the things about writing that I love, marketing is the one that gets my stomach grinding. Having to go out and “beg” people to buy my book rubs me wrong, yet without marketing, nobody will know I even exist.

            Now in the grand scheme of things, we’re going to continue to explore Amazon Ads.

            Besides having to deal with a sucky web site, there’s minimum daily budget, setting up a professional looking page, and it all gets down to keywords.

            My guess is that Amazon calculates all the keyword clicks, and when you reach your budget, it drops your ad for that day.


            I attended a writer’s conference years ago where one of the classes was on keywords. It was like trying to learn Chinese in a day. Despite that, I managed to retain a small bit of insight in using them in this ads campaign.

            Keywords designate where your book is placed. Whenever you search for something on Amazon, you’ll notice the exact match (say an author name) and then a whole bunch of seemingly unrelated books (this would apply to any product).

            The “key” to all this is setting the keywords that will get the best results.


            There are three ways to utilize a keyword.

            Exact: This means if someone searches for your keyword and it matches exactly, your book is more likely to show up somewhere on the list.

            Phrase: This means if that keyword is part of a phrase (example “pine” as in “pine stick,” “pine box,” etc.

            Broad: This means the word or phrase could be anywhere in a search.

            The way I originally set it up, I only went for some of the three, usually exact or phrase. I was afraid of going over budget. Hah! Most of my keywords didn’t do diddly so I didn’t get charged for anything.

            When I created a campaign for the UK, I decided that all keywords would have all three, to better my chances of something showing up.


            I entered the word Glen Buxton. He was the lead guitar player in the original Alice Cooper Band and the book is dedicated to him. However, I only added phrase at the time.

            When I went to search for Glen Buxton, my book didn’t show up at all on the listings.

            Now, I used Clive Cussler, because my book is in a similar vein. For that I used all three and it is my top performer.


            Now things get tricky. Bids.

            You can go with the defaults set up by Amazon. I strongly suggest you do that at first. It can be from a few cents to a dollar or more to begin with. Don’t let those amounts fool you. If you use dynamic bidding, you aren’t going to get charged unless someone clicks on your ad or maybe lingers on that page (or maybe scrolls through it?, not sure).

            Impressions mean your ad came up on a search. Clicking on it is where the real money comes in and then if someone buys your book, they you get charged the full enchilada.

            The thing about bids is that the higher the bid, the closer your book with come to the first page of the search.

            Since Clive Cussler was getting the most bids, I increased the amount several times so that finally, when I went to search “Clive Cussler,” my book came up right at the top of the first page.

            The other thing about bidding though is that if you set your bid higher than your daily budget, you won’t get any results at all.


            To get the feel of your results (and to get any results at all), you need to run the ad for at least a month. It takes that long to build any meaningful statistics. Not just impressions (the highest number) but actual clicks or sales.

            I don’t suggest a campaign for just a month, which I did at first. When the month came to the end, I extended it two more months.

            My results so far are five books sold, two almost sold (I lost out) and my budget is sitting at $125.99. I’ve sold $38.77 worth of books, so you can see the payoff ratio at first isn’t all that great. Since I just started my UK campaign, I only have 3600 impressions and no clicks or sales so my budget is low (24 pence?). At the end of the first month, I should have better results to go off of.


            I’ve talked to several people that use Amazon Ads and they both had hundreds. Yup, that’s right, you need to get creative with your keywords and use a spray and pray approach at first.


            This is another critical factor. Getting creative with your keywords.

            My book, Spanish Gold is an adventure/thriller.

            At first I was just going with nouns for the most part. Thriller, adventure, and words that show up within the adventure like locations (Spain, England, Azores). However, I had a brilliant idea which nobody else brought up but probably use. How about similar authors?

            That’s right, don’t forget similar authors so your book shows up in the right place with similar titles.

            Turns out those author keywords are having the biggest results, at least so far.

            Even with my kitchen sink approach, I still only have about seventy or eighty keywords so far. It may expand more later, once I have several months of statistics.

            You can tell pretty quick which ones produce results all the time and which only once or not at all.

            Dump the bad ones?

            Not necessarily, just don’t go crazy on the bids. Keep them cheap. If for some reason, they start getting hits, then think of increasing your budget. No need to delete them if you get nothing at all.

            Now, there is also the negative bid thing which I still don’t understand that well.

            Say, you have a keyword that gets clicked all the time but you are getting no results at all. It may be a specific noun, phrase, or whatever. Then you start getting hits but no sales at all.

            You can designate that particular phrase, exact, or broad as a negative word so that Amazon will ignore it.

            That’s about all I know of negative keywords. So far, none of my results are giving me any useful info on how to go about using negative keywords. Like I said, the web site isn’t all that user friendly.


            Amazon Ads has the potential to be a great marketing tool for those of us that cannot get out all the time. It can work for anyone.

            Give it a try!

            Happy writing!


            I see this question come up from time to time. I thought it’d be worth a revisit.

            Pitching to an agent is a moot question if you’re going to self-publish. It’s also moot if you’re going to be your own agent and want to go directly through the publisher yourself if you think you know your way around the system well enough. Funny, after being rejected 691 times, most of those rejections from agents with only a few from publishers, I finally got my deal with a publisher. A small press mind you, but still a deal, no agent.


            If you go the self-published or e-published route (which is still self-published), no agent is involved. There’s no middleman, especially with the e-pub. However, to some in the industry (cough cough… Lee Child), you aren’t worth spit. I resent that, but also see his point. There’s a lot of crap out there in the self-published world because there are no filters to weed out the stuff that shouldn’t be published. Just look at the books that make it to traditional print. There’s no accounting for taste as it is. There are plenty of bad books out there from big publishers.

            Consider how many self-published works are flooding the market, especially now that e-pubbing is taking off, that don’t have anyone to tell the author no, or to edit them and tell them where they need to fix anything. A lot of people are being ripped off of their hard-earned cents or even dollars from blind sales of tomes that may have catchy titles or artwork but turn out to be turgid, boring or amateurish drivel that a third grader could out-write. In that respect, I agree with Child, but he’s slamming a lot of great writers who are being rejected on a whim from overloaded agents and publishers who never get to even a quarter of the manuscripts submitted to them, if that.


            If you decide to go with an agent, why? Because they can open doors you can’t. They live and breathe the industry. They know these people. They eat lunch and dinner with them. They go to conferences with editors and publishers, they talk to them every day. They know their likes and dislikes. The big boys. That’s the argument for them.

            Which agents do you look for? Forget the books you see in the bookstore. They’re a great way to fatten the wallet of the author that wrote them, but they’re woefully out of date by the time you see them on a bookshelf. The best way is to use the Internet. is probably the most detailed and up-to-date site out there. There used to be a great site called Preditors and Editors but they are now defunct. This site used to list the good and bad ones and could save you a lot of grief.


            You have to know your genre. Each agent usually takes specific genres. Study their profile. If it’s vague, take a chance. All you’ll get is a rejection. So what? 691 rejections and counting… I’m still alive.

            When reading the agent profile, be sure to check their submission requirements carefully!


            Have a generic submission query, but make sure to customize it for each agent. Some will ask for a synopsis, a few pages, this and that. Some will want exclusive access to your work. If they do? Lie! I’m serious. Lie! Let’s put it this way. When you’re sending out queries or MS’s to agents (if they ask for them), they may take 6 months to a year to get back to you. Multiply that by how many agents you want to submit to and the inevitable rejections you’re going to get before one says yes. How many decades to you want to wait before you finally get a yes? I’m just saying. Their demand for exclusivity sounds reasonable assuming your MS is all that dynamite and everyone is starving for work, but the fact is they aren’t. They get thousands and thousands of MSs a month. They’re flooded with stuff and barely have time to get up in the morning, let alone read your work. So, demanding the impossible is ridiculous.

            One glaring example is my experience with one agent. He took two years to get back to me with a no.


            Sure, you can take the “easy way” and self-publish but turns out, self-publishing isn’t all that easy either. There’s a lot you have to account for when going it on your own. If you want a quality product, you need more than just writing and downloading. A lot more.

            Agents or direct-to-publisher deals are also not all that easy unless you get lucky. Whatever way you go, make sure you have plenty of patience and learn your stuff.

            Happy writing!


            This article originally appeared in 2019. Given what I’ve read lately, I thought it would be appropriate to bring it up again.

            One time on a writers group forum, my good friend Toni asked a question about chapter length. It was no surprise that she got a bunch of different answers.

            I’ve discussed chapters before in several articles and alluded to their length but this time, I want to specifically deal with how long a chapter should be.


            The big question pertaining to this subject is: Why have chapters at all?

            It harkens back to the reason we have punctuation. There was a book published in Spain decades ago that I’ve mentioned here at Fred Central periodically. The book is a couple of hundred pages long and is one sentence. The only punctuation mark in the entire book is a period at the end. That’s it. I’ve never seen the book, but have heard plenty about it. Can you just imagine a single sentence two hundred plus pages long?

            It bothers me to read a single paragraph that takes up half a page, let alone a full one.

            I’m not a fan of books with only a couple of chapters, and few scenes.


            Pauses for thoughts – breaks to regroup, rethink, like scenes in a movie, or on TV.

            Commercial breaks where I can read a bit without getting lost in the text (I despise commercials).

            THAT’S why we have chapters.

            It’s the same reason we not only have punctuation, but sentences and paragraphs. To break the story down and make it more manageable and digestible.


            I don’t completely buy into this “it takes whatever it takes” thing.


            That gives the author free reign to ramble. When a chapter or scene is too long, it becomes tedious. Period.

            I’ve been reading for over sixty years. Sitting down for long periods has never been comfortable without some kind of break, especially when I was a young’un with a shorter attention span. Those bursts of reading got longer as I got older, and now they’re getting a little shorter again.


            Not only does my body insist, but my mind needs a break, and I have a lower tolerance for bullshit and rambling.

            When a chapter or scene is too long, that tells me (consciously and subconsciously) that the author doesn’t know when to shut up and get organized.

            Long chapters mean the author doesn’t know how to pace correctly.

            On the other hand, super-short chapters can either be seen as hyperactive and disjointed, or perfect for reading during commercials.

            I’m perfectly fine with short chapters as long as they have a beginning, a middle and an end. If the chapter is a single paragraph, with nothing but a burst of thought, THAT’S a bad chapter. I’ve seen it before, plenty of times.

            On the other hand, I’ve seen seventy and eighty page chapters with one and two-page paragraphs and they were pure torture.

            To me, moderation is the key.


            On the other hand, your book DOES need to take as many chapters as necessary, but you have to consider your reader, and whether you want to punish them, or not let the writing get in the way of the story.

            Think about it.

            I tend for short chapters, or longer ones with short scenes.

            I’m quite happy with moderate chapters broken up with scenes.

            You know what? I’m not at alone in this feeling. In my unofficial polling, which I do all the time, I get unprompted comments from non-writer readers about books (in other words, our potential audience). I hear all kinds of things, and pertaining to this discussion, a biggie is “I thought that chapter would never end.” “That guy (or gal) doesn’t know when to shut up.” “That was just plain tedious.”


            You don’t have to have 80 chapters in your story, but you also don’t have to have 3. You can be reasonable and keep the PACING going so the reader doesn’t get bogged down.

            A book should have as many chapters as it takes, but the key is keeping the pacing going so you don’t punish the reader.

Happy writing!


            Since many of you are in the agent query process, I thought it would be a good idea to revisit this 2011 article, tweaked and updated, of course!

            Whenever I’d query to agents or talk to them at conferences, it used to be pounded into me that I needed to know my specific genre. It was the kiss of death to fumble around if the agent asked you your genre and you couldn’t answer them. Nowadays, it is not necessarily always the case, but I still believe the prejudice holds for most of the agents out there. The reasoning for that is the agents want to know which shelf the book belongs on.


The big problem with that is when I used to go to Barnes & Noble and look at the bookshelves. Of course, there were the romances, the mysteries, the westerns and the science fiction. However, everything else was for a while bundled into general fiction. No longer were there shelves for icky bug (horror), thrillers, steampunk, what have you. Where did those shelves all go? They went out of business with Borders and all the mom-and-pop bookstores!

Since this article came out, Barnes & Noble changed their tune. Genre fiction is a bit better categorized. Even icky bug has their own horror section.


            There’s another very important reason to know your genre. If you don’t, how are you going to know your audience? Forget about what shelf it goes on. The agent is going to want to know who you expect to sell your book to.


            There’s nothing wrong with going your own way. However, if you do, make sure your story makes sense and has a hook that people can follow. If your story is about something nobody is interested in, well…you see my point?


            I would list all the genres and subgenres there are, but to tell the truth, I don’t know all of them. I’ll tell you that there are the biggies like mystery, thrillers, romance, science fiction, fantasy, western, etc. However, there are now so many sub-genres of each genre it would take me days to research them all and I’d still probably miss a few. When you sit down to write your literary masterpiece, you should at least have an idea. My only advice is to make sure there’s an audience out there for it because that’s one of the first questions an agent will ask you (if they don’t still ask about the shelf). That’ll also be your biggest problem when you go online to seek out an agent. Most list specific genres they’re interested in. Make sure you pay attention to that before you waste their and your time.


            Know your genre! Research it so you know what you’re getting yourself into. You could take the approach that you want to write say, a fantasy. You decide you don’t want to be corrupted by what is out there so you write it completely on your own based on what you think fantasy is or should be. Once done, you start pitching your “uncorrupted” fantasy to agents. One takes a look at it and tells you, honestly, that you don’t have a clue what the genre is all about. You have all the “facts” wrong. Back to the drawing board. In a way, you may have invented an entirely new genre, but it’s something that won’t sell because it doesn’t follow enough of the rules of the genre. You have to know your genre so do the research! There’s nothing wrong with bending a genre, but you have to know the genre to know what to bend.

            In the case of a story that’s out of the blue and doesn’t fit any genre, such as general fiction, you will have a much tougher sell. Which agent are you going to pitch it to? Which audience are you going to go for? These are things you have to think about before you dive in and start writing. I’m not saying don’t do it, I’m just saying you might want to think about it before you take the plunge. I’m all for creating new genres. I’d just hate to see a new writer get frustrated right off the get-go without having a success under their belt before they go off the deep end.


            It doesn’t matter whether you go for a conventional publisher or self-publish. You still have to know how to categorize your book, so people have some idea of what they’re buying. Even if you go the self-publishing route and want to post the book on Amazon, they require some kind of set category.

            Some thoughts to contemplate.

            Happy writing!



            Another question that came up on the forums recently was when to stop editing. I thought it would be appropriate to revisit this 2018 article which was the reworking of a 2015 article. It’s not like things aren’t worth repeating…

            This article was originally called Last Minute Tweaks and I wrote it in 2015, but I re-purposed it for today because at the not so recent now (2018) Las Vegas Writer’s Conference, this subject came up time and time again. I couldn’t suppress the inspiration and the old monkey that hangs on every writer’s back. It is, of course tweaked.

            We’ve all heard that tired old quote from the NRA’s dear old friend Charlton Heston about “cold dead hands” and some could say the same thing about a manuscript. When it comes to your “precious” (okay, another quote, and don’t make me say which movie), it seems like you can never stop until it’s literally (oh, what a cliché), pried out of your very much alive hands.

            During a recent writer’s conference, the subject of editing already published work plus last-minute tweaks to manuscripts about to be published was a popular topic.


            I don’t think I’m revealing any huge trade secrets when I tell you what my manuscript from Treasure Of The Umbrunna had gone through. #1 It went through personal multiple edits, tweaks and read-throughs, including with the Henderson Writer’s Group. #2 It went through three (or is it four?) complete edits by my publisher. Even after so many eyes, there still ended up being a few typos and errors (as I’ve had pointed out to me by readers). I’ve been careful not to go looking for them for fear of finding even more, after seven years since publication. I know I’d still find even more stuff I want to change. If there’s ever a reprint, which is costly, by the way, the typos noted by people will surely be addressed, but I’ll likely not do another read-through and tweak. Cold dead hands.

            What I can say is through all of that, there hasn’t been a single major change in either story line or plot. I was able to keep true to my polka-dot sewer (my muse) and use my usual – no – my only method of writing. I knew where I wanted to start and where I wanted to end. The rest (the middle) was a total surprise.


            I must say that by this point in the game, when I wrote Treasure, I was no babe in the woods, cliché intended. I already had ten novels under my belt (at that time), even if they were all unpublished. The only one which might have plotting issues would be the first one, The Cave and even that one might be more of a problem with writing functionality rather than plotting. NOTE: It turns out I stumbled across the MS last year and started going through it. Not as bad as I thought.

            It all boils down to fixing the numerous writing mistakes, tweaking minor things. Lots of them.


            With so much editing, even if the edits are relatively minor, which in my case, they were, making those edits can also create more errors. When all is said and done, a final run-through is essential!

            My first edit was for structure and continuity, not so much for grammar. I made several tweaks and in the process, created some grammatical errors (mostly too many noun-verb combinations starting sentences). The second edit was for grammar, and I made lots of corrections but in the process also created some other errors. The third edit was to fix the noun-verb combinations I created fixing the other issues. Along the way, the editor found more grammatical tweaks like show not tell and phrasing she thought would work better. This has been typical of all four of my published books, so far as of this writing.

            You have to remember that even though I can do the same thing to others, being an editor myself, and can also do it to my own writing in a limited amount (I’m too close to it), I need that outside eye to see it (forest through the trees).

            With so much red ink, through multiple edits, when the final draft came down, prior to printing, there were bound to be slip-ups and things we all missed.

            True to what I figured, I found pages of errors on my error sheets (there are 25 lines per page). In total, the count came to almost 300 line items. However, as the final result showed through the readers, there were still typos!


            We seem to have done a bit better with Lusitania Gold, Gods Of The Blue Mountains, and Spanish Gold. At least we haven’t heard any more feedback about typos yet from readers. I found a big one myself, but it has since been fixed and I won’t say where that one was!

            Cold dead hands.


            Not only did the time to let go come up at that 2018 conference, but as part of the goodie bags each participant received, we each got copies of one or another version of Writer’s Bloc. Writer’s Bloc is the annual (or bi-annual) short story anthology put out by the Henderson Writer’s Group. I have short stories in many of them. I happened to get the original Writer’s Bloc, of which I have the short story, The Walk Home. It was the second in the West Virginia Trilogy.

            I had some idle time between classes…no…I was early for one of the meals, and I pulled out my copy and read the story. This book came out in what…2009 or something? I don’t remember. Anyway, while I was still mostly pleased with how The Walk Home turned out, I also cringed at some of the writing. I so much wanted to re-tweak it. However, after so many copies already in print, what’s one to do?

            Cold dead hands…


            There comes a point when your MS is just dun didded. Let it be. You did the best you could for the time. Be happy and move on!

            That was my mantra for the rest of that conference and still is all these years later. Keep going and don’t worry about it. As long as you strive to improve, your integrity is still intact. It’s when you get lazy and don’t care that you’re compromised. Don’t let that ever happen!

            Happy writing!



            This next series is one I originally ran in 2012. The subject came up recently on one of the forums. I’m fixing to submit another short story soon, and some of you writers have contemplated writing one, if you haven’t already. Some of you may be struggling with yours. Why not revisit one way how to do it?


            For many of us writers, our beginnings were, quite naturally, with the short story. Most of us had to write term papers. Remember them? Not exactly what one would call writing for pleasure. I recall one in particular, from high school, where I had to write a story about a hike down the Central California coast, following the path of the missionaries from Morrow Bay south to Santa Barbara. The history teacher gave me a B and only docked me because the timeline was unrealistic. I vaguely remember liking that paper because a good dose of it was bull, mixed in with the research I was forced to do to “fake out” the teacher.

            Any other term papers I did, including book reports (a form of a short story, if you stretch things) I don’t remember a thing about. I have vague memories of writing short little stories here and there, but the subjects are lost to the winds of time (how’s that for a metaphor?). In my case, by the time I took writing seriously, I went right into novel-length stories. When I tackled the short story format, I’d already had four or five full length manuscripts under my belt. In that respect, I already had my mojo working for me.


            Many of you starting out in this writing passion will want to stick your toe in the water. The way to do that is with the short story. There’s less effort involved and less to lose if you miss the boat. If you take your time and structure it correctly from the get-go, you’re less likely to fail, especially if you have a great idea but need the structure to put it together.


            All stories, whether short or long have the same basic format. There’s the beginning, the middle and the end. The difference is that with a short story, you have a lot less real estate to work with. We’re talking between five hundred and five thousand words. For an extreme example, when I lived in Indiana, back in 2001, there was a writing contest in the local newspaper for a fifty-word short story contest. Yeah, that’s right, fifty words. That’s about three or four sentences. I submitted around a dozen stories to that contest but didn’t win. In fact, I never saw the winners. We missed the paper that week. It was rigged! They cheated! They don’t know talent when they see it! Well, at least I didn’t have to pay to enter.

            In a novel, you write scenes which give you a chance to leave the reader hanging so that they’ll turn the page to read the next chapter. You don’t have that luxury with a short story. You have to grab the reader’s attention and keep it within one to a dozen pages, and that’s it. You have to grab them in the beginning, keep them in the middle and satisfy them in the end, with a conclusion.

            With such short space, that means you have to write tight, keep the narrative short, and keep the point of view (POV) characters to a minimum. Too many POV characters weakens the story and leaves the reader confused. You don’t have enough space to flesh out each personality. It’s best not to have more than one or two POV characters, which applies to novels as well, though with the larger format, there’s more leeway.

            Narrative and description must be kept concise. No time to blather about every blade of grass or the color of the lampshade and the shadow of the mailbox. If it’s a key plot point, fine. If you need to set atmosphere, do it quickly with as few words as possible. Don’t let that dominate the story or you won’t have any story left!

            Next time we’ll go into more excruciating details about your short story. They’re actually quite fun to write, so don’t get too depressed. If you love writing, you’ll love short stories. They rock!

            Happy writing!



            Since you have to write tight and concise, the story must be done in such a way to convey all the necessary details to get across your point, cram everything you want to say within the demanded word count, and still make it something someone would want to read. This isn’t as bad as it sounds.


            For me, it’s just a matter of following my usual method which I’ve described endlessly in these pages. However, for those of you who don’t want to read through my previous blogs, I’ll ‘splain it once again. I know where I want to start and where I want to end. Everything else in the middle is a total surprise. That’s if I’m writing fiction. Now, what did I say in the last article on short stories? There has to be a beginning, a middle and an end. Yup, the pattern is right there. Since I already know two parts of it, all I have to figure out is the middle. In my creative process, that comes naturally. The trick is making it come together in the right word count.


            The big hang-up between short stories and novels is word count. With novels, you have the freedom to write to your heart’s desire (within limits) until the story’s finished. If it’s ridiculously long, you’ll have to pare it down into something marketable. Even then, there can be a lot of leeway. If it’s too short, you either have to shoot for a novella or it may be time to beef up the story. With a short story, things are more restricted. You can certainly come in under the word count if you finish saying what you need, but you can’t go over too far.

            A lot of anthologies ask for between four and five thousand words. That works out to between twelve and fifteen pages double spaced in twelve point typeface (if I remember right). To get the story into that restrictive limit, I’ve found a basic formula that helps me.


            I’ve mentioned several times that there should be a beginning, a middle and an end. With that in mind, I’ll write the story with three major scenes in mind. A beginning scene, a middle scene, and the slam bang scene at the end. The beginning scene introduces the main character or characters (usually two at most), the bad guy, and sets up the main plot (or premise). The middle scene puts the character (s) in the main conflict and has he/she or them beaten down by the bad guy. In the final scene, he/she or they rise above all and resolve the conflict.

            Not to confuse you more, but that’s just a simplification in my head of how the story is laid out. In print, the actual story will be a series of scenes like mini-chapters, or groups of scenes that block together in my head to make the beginning, middle and end. In the rough draft, I may have written three original scenes or ten, but in the editing process, I’ll have condensed and combined or even broken apart into the final product to get the best flow. The finished story may have five, six, or even two scenes. When you set out to write your story, either keep those three parts in your head as you write, or outline them if that’s your formula. When it comes out in the wash, you may have any number of actual scenes, from one to who knows? We’ll talk more about number of scenes next time. The point is to organize the story into bite-sized chunks. That makes it easier to write and helps you keep organized.

            This formula does not work quite the same for non-fiction, at least where plot is concerned. A non-fiction story should still have a beginning, middle and end. The difference is that instead, there should be an aim, a platform, or some kind of message (moral) to the story.


            For me, when I sit down to write a short story, it’s like I’m writing chapters of a novel, except I’m not going to continue. Regardless, the story just flows out. I’ve been able to do it for some magical reason and my word count usually comes close to the ballpark every time. It may be over by a hundred words, maybe slightly under, but it’s never far off. Editing will take care of the rest. Why I can do this, I have no idea.

            Next we’ll go into a few more mechanics.

            Until next time, happy writing!



            Going back through some of my published short stories, I found that the total scene count varied. The Walk Home had four. The Basement had seven. Don’t Mess With A Snorg had five. Fun In The Outland had six. In those examples, all still had the same basic three elements consisting of the beginning, the middle and the end.


            Let’s consider the end, or the outcome of your story. What are you trying to accomplish? Do you want to leave the reader with a smile on their face? A tear in their eye? Leave them hanging? Whatever that might be sets your path. Compacting that path is the trick. That’s one reason you can’t clutter the story with too many point-of-view characters, too much description, and too much narrative.


            Though this wasn’t a short story, per se, I once did a term paper for a college class. I forget the actual subject, yet I remembered the process. Go figure! The paper had to be so many pages, so many words, just like a short story. I had a subject with several parts to explore. I found one of those parts easy to research and came up with a lot of info. When it came down to writing the report, the words flowed out. Before I knew it, I’d gone way over the page and word count, yet what I’d finished was just one piece of the puzzle and still had to address the rest of the parts that needed to be combined to make the Big Kahuna. I could’ve ended up with a novelette for a rather mundane term paper, except I didn’t have near the inspiration for the other parts.

            That anecdote applies to your short story. Don’t get caught up in a scene and forget about the big picture. You have a goal, the ending to get to. Don’t get lost in the middle and forget that you have a limit, or you may lose your direction and fizzle out. If it becomes all that important to keep going, I strongly suggest you forget about the short story and turn it into a full-blown novel. Follow your muse!


            To me, the whole point of writing is because I love to write, to create and to follow my muse. That should be the same for you. Unless you’re under a contract, or are being somehow forced to write this short story, don’t let it hold you back. On the other hand, if you just get carried away with a huge scene, but lose direction when it comes to wrapping up the rest of the story, time to back away and let it sit until you figure out what’s going on. You can always pare down the over-long scene. That’s called editing.


            Let’s look at the opposite extreme. You write your short story and you say what you have to in a lot less words than expected. Your goal was four to five thousand words, but the story is five hundred. Is that bad, or did you just accomplish your goal too soon? Look at what you have. Does it have all the elements you wanted, or did you just get in a rush to finish it? Can you expand any of the narrative or dialogue? Does it need to be? Let someone else read it. If they like it and they’re not your mom or a close friend or underling, maybe it’s okay. Just remember the well-worn word cliché, Don’t fix something that isn’t broke!


            Finally, it’s time to find somewhere to get it published. If you already have a word count, then I’m assuming you have a place to submit. If not, start looking. The only thing I suggest, which I’ve mentioned before and I cannot emphasize enough, never EVER pay to have your story published! EVER!

            Until next time, happy writing!


            A few years ago I wrote an article about having a blog and nothing to write about. This time it’s about writing in general. This is NOT ME! I want to emphasize that. I’ve seen some Facebook posts about writers having nothing to write about and that’s what I want to address here.


            Like me, most of us who take up this passion are bursting with ideas. In fact, we have so many we often forget over half of them before we ever get around to writing them all down. However, let’s just say our “wells” are not likely to run dry anytime soon. One day, we’ll get to each and every idea, whether still lingering at the back of our minds, or newly re-discovered by some prompt in real life.


            While it still may end up being a passion, there are those that take up writing because they think they’ll love it, only to find out their one great idea didn’t pan out. What next?

            Uh…maybe you need to just practice what you do know until something pops up. Maybe you need to set things aside until the inspiration comes. A few of you probably need another hobby. Not to discourage anyone, but if you only ever had one idea or just vague notions, you might what to take up something else to avoid frustration until you get that idea again sometime in the future.


            Writing prompts can be a great way for new writers to get their mojo.

            For anyone starting out, it’s not a bad idea to write from prompts. This will give you practice for the “real thing” when your own ideas start to form. Besides, writing prompts can be the source of great inspiration.


            I’m not a big fan of just picking a random subject you’re not interested in and making it real. That’s work, and while it has some benefits, for those of you starting out, it can be a real source of frustration. Or, it can also make what might seem like a passion into work. It might snuff out that spark, but then again, if you succeed in writing about something you have no interest in, it may get your creative juices flowing in the opposite direction, right into what you wanted (or thought) you wanted to do in the first place.


            For many of us, the passion of writing involves writing any and everything that pops into our head. There are no limits except our own interests and imagination. For example, when I started out, I was writing performance reports and instructions for other people. I liked it and decided to dig up my own muse, which when I first tried it, was a frustrating experience. Why? Because I had no idea what I was doing!

            Through writing those reports and instructions as part of my Air Force supervisor job, I realized I really liked writing. I was getting practice. Around this time, my wife and I also did an international newsletter to a select group. This prompted me even more, especially added to all the other technical writing I was doing.

            When I finally decided it was time to find another passion (after music failed), I sat down and wrote a complete novel. This was the first of many novels, short stories, and articles.


            Each of you has your own story on how you got (or are getting) started. The thing is that learning the ropes first helps tremendously to finally get into your inspirations.

            The people just starting out, or even those who have been with it for a while can run out of ideas if they never had many to begin with. Or, never did have any to begin with, just a desire to write.

            You can still nurture that desire to write if you find those elusive ideas. Writing prompts may be a good way.


            Whether just starting or having been at it a while, you need something to prompt you if you’re out of ideas. If that great idea to be a writer started with no idea what to do, be patient. Either use writing prompts, do a lot of observing, or walk away for a while until something hits.

            There’s nothing more frustrating than staring at a blank page.

            My opinion is don’t do it. Don’t ruin your desire to write by placing undue pressure on yourself to produce something. Leave it alone for a while and do something else until that inspiration hits. If you’re truly meant to do it, it will come.

            For those of you that have the chops but are just burned out, or at a stopping place, I suggest to keep writing even if it’s mundane subjects, just to keep the chops up. Eventually, the inspiration will likely come back.

            Happy writing!


            I just had another book signing. This time at a mall in Primm, Nevada. While it was a lot of fun, it wasn’t fruitful. That’s nothing new. It inspired me to go back to these articles from early 2016 and 2022 where I talked about an individual book signing and results of another multiple author one early this year. Quite a bit of difference! I’ll tweak and add as needed.


            And then, it happened!

            Okay, I copped that infamous line from at least a dozen, if not more episodes of Sea Hunt. It was worth it.

            It happened, alright. It surely happened (and don’t call me Shirley). If I need to tell you where I copped that line, well you’re no movie buff!

            Anyway, I had my first solo book signing and at the risk of repeating myself, it was well worth it!


            My solo event was organized by Barnes & Noble. The idea was to get as many people as possible to show up. The store pre-ordered a certain number of books, on the condition that my publisher accepts returns. That’s the big condition of a major retailer doing a book signing. Either you have to supply them the books, so they can sell them through their cash register at the retail price, which they don’t like to do because it isn’t in their system (more on that in a moment), or they order them from their supplier who accepts returns.

            It’s not that retailers are so much against self-published books. However, when you self-publish, you have no distribution system. A large retailer deals with stock systems and distribution. This means inventory and returns etc. When you try to bring them something outside the system, it plays havoc with their bookkeeping. In that regard, they simply don’t like to deal with it.

            In my case, since I did NOT self-publish, my book’s available through Ingram and Baker & Taylor distribution systems. Not only that, but it’s available through Barnes & Noble. The only issue was that I’m with a small press, and not the big six. More on that in a moment. At first, there was a glitch, and it was cataloged wrong, but that was straightened out. When I got that cleared, the very nice lady in charge of things said yes to the book signing.

            The difference between a small publisher and a large one is distribution. Because my publisher is not one of the “big six”, my book isn’t distributed to all the stores across the country. In that case, this local store ordered that set quantity for the book signing, on the guarantee the publisher would accept the returns. With that taken care of, it was a matter of pre-publicity.

            Though Barnes & Noble posted the event on their web site, it was up to me to do my own marketing as well. I learned a few things.

            First off, social media was by far, the best way to get the word out under these circumstances. I used Facebook and Twitter, even though 99.9% of my followers don’t even live in Las Vegas.

            On the other hand, I had some mailers and flyers printed. As for the flyers, I deliberately had them printed 5X7 because I figured the larger they are, the more likely someone would take them down from a bulletin board. The smaller size was more likely to stay up longer, even if they were smaller and drew less attention. (Note: For this current 2022 library event, my only publicity was through Facebook like most everyone else that had social media.)

            One little problem.

            Have you noticed that almost nobody has bulletin boards anymore? I found that out the hard way. I went all over the place and found almost NO bulletin boards. When I did, I usually got “It can’t be for any money making event.” Say what???

            Shot down in flames. I had a pack full of useless flyers and mailers. Oh yeah, about the mailers, I ended up just giving them to people that I either see all the time, or are already Facebook friends.

            Lesson learned.


            The day of the event was tight. Since it was a Saturday, I unfortunately, usually have something going on with my astronomy club as well, and quite often miss my other writer’s group member’s book signings. I couldn’t very well miss my own! Right after this event, I had to rush home, pack my telescope and head to the north end of town for a public viewing session.

            I arrived at the store and they already had a table set up for me to the right of the main door, with my books displayed and a sign with a photo of my book. They also had a display screen with my book and name as you walk through that door above their Kindle display.

            I brought my fold-out banner, my bookmarks and business cards. I also brought a note pad to write down complicated names for signings. I always do that in case someone has an unusual spelling of their name so I get it right, or if someone speaks softly or in a tone I can’t hear very well.

            Finally, a key component, to attract extra attention and for a conversation starter, I added a candy bowl.

            The store ordered fifteen books.


            The event went very well. The key to a book signing, now this is important, is to NOT sit at your chair (which they supplied) and just stare forward. Remember, you’re there to sell books, not wait for people to come and discover you!

            Some people avoided eye contact. I still said hi. Sometimes they responded, sometimes not. There are certain people you just know not to mess with. Some people are shy and if you say hi and start talking to them, they respond. With some people, if you say something, you can start a conversation.

            Don’t be afraid to be rejected. Most will, but once in a while, someone will spark an interest.

            The candy bowl was a great conversation starter. Sometimes it was just an avenue for kids. Sometimes adults with a sweet tooth. It made people hesitate.

            I said hi to a lot of people. I found a lot of people didn’t read fantasy, but a few did as well. I explained the book to many. Some showed interest. Quite a few took my business cards and bookmarks, both which have the book title, ISBN and/or my web site.


            As a result of my publicity, four people I know stopped by. Three bought a copy of the book. One stranger bought a copy as well. I went with no expectations. My goal was to sell at least one, so I outdid my expectations and then some!

            That may not sound like much to some of you. However, consider how many book signings virtual unknown authors or even some very well-known authors go to where they don’t sell ANY books!

            I think I did pretty well.

            Oh…and I also got a maybe from one person who had to leave and catch a ride. We’ll see about that one.

            In the end, the store asked me to autograph six copies of the book. They put “autographed by author” stickers on them and set all of the remaining books on a table by the door for a few days before transferring them to the local author wall in the back of the store.

            I’ve been posting that on Facebook to let everyone know. Maybe some of those will eventually sell as well.

            Folks, this is the life of a new author. Unless you’re up there on the New York Times Best Seller List, get used to it. You’ll be doing the same things.

EARLY 2022

            My latest signing was almost none of that. I had a table to share with another author just inside and to the left of the door. No banners (no room) and no standing in front of the table (no point). We had a sparse crowd, which was no big news. At these events, most usually sell only a couple of copies at best. A few maybe more, depending on the genre and who shows. Neither me nor my partner at the table sold a thing. She wrote erotica and some supernatural and also had a lot of swag stuff, which is great if you can go that route. Most of the people I knew did not sell a thing either, though a few sold one copy.

            Still, it was worth it just to get out in public, a rare thing still with the current pandemic. I got to see old friends, have some interesting conversations with strangers who stopped by to check me out, and gave away a few cards, bookmarks and candy. Oh, and I didn’t have a telescope event planned for the evening! It was something else.

LATE 2022

            This one was in Primm, Nevada at the outlet mall. Sounded like a great idea and it was worth it just for the networking alone.

            I was glad the organizer Stephen was in the parking lot to show me the shortest way in because I had no idea. Saved a lot of walking!

            Was early, as usual, and only partially set up while I waited for my table partners to arrive. This time I shared with my publisher, Mystic Publishers, from Henderson, NV.

            In the meantime, I took a trip up the escalator into the casino and walked right past Bonnie & Clyde’s death mobile on the way to the restroom. Took a few photos on the way back downstairs.

            After everyone arrived and set up, we just waited. A few sold books, which is typical. However, when you are a genre writer like me, it’s hard to catch the casual passerby, of which there weren’t that many. I had banners up, addressed everyone that passed by, but outside of a few cards and bookmarks taken as well as a few pieces of candy, nobody was all that interested. It seems romance and reality books sell the best at these things.

            I was able to meet Stephen Adler’s mother, who was selling his autobiography, Sweet Child Of Mine. Adler was the original drummer in Guns and Roses. Nice lady.

            Had some great discussions with my publisher and another author at our house. I made a few contacts, got some exposure from the author crowd. Got two possible web sites to plug my book to as well.

            You take what you can get.

            I didn’t sell anything, but I still consider it a victory for just getting out into the world.

            Happy writing!